# Table 3 Analysis of covariance to adjust the pretest scores as a variable covariate

Variables

Source

Sum of squares

df

Mean square

F-value

p value

Partial eta squared

Awareness

Pretes

.093

1

.093

.040

.842

.000

Posttest

367.613

1

367.613

157.634

< .001

.517

Error

342.814

147

2.332

R Squared = .518 (Adjusted R Squared = .511)

Perceived susceptibility

Pretest

88.273

1

88.273

9.002

.003

.058

Posttest

2091.104

1

2091.104

213.239

< .001

.592

error

1441.541

147

9.806

R Squared = .603 (Adjusted R Squared = .598)

Perceived severity

Pretest

8.403

1

8.403

1.639

.203

.011

Posttest

824.284

1

824.284

160.754

< .001

.522

error

753.757

147

5.128

R Squared = .524 (Adjusted R Squared = .518)

Perceived benefits

Pretest

.000

1

.000

.003

.960

.000

Posttest

4.851

1

4.851

33.639

< .001

.186

error

21.200

147

.144

R Squared = .187 (Adjusted R Squared = .175)

Perceived barriers

Pretest

397.798

1

397.798

21.760

< .001

.129

Posttest

1243.343

1

1243.343

68.014

< .001

.316

error

2687.269

147

18.281

R Squared = .373 (Adjusted R Squared = .364)

Self-efficacy

Pretest

130.137

1

130.137

35.323

< .001

.194

Posttest

280.681

1

280.681

76.186

< .001

.481

error

302.570

147

3.684

R Squared = .461 (Adjusted R Squared = .433)

Behavior

Pretes

.055

1

.055

.115

.735

.001

Posttest

45.524

1

29.094

61.100

< .001

.394

error

69.999

147

.476

R Squared = .403 (Adjusted R Squared = .384) 