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Table 2 Prevalence ratios (PR) for HCV positivity and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) according to selected women’s characteristics

From: Hepatitis C virus seroprevalence in the general female population of 9 countries in Europe, Asia and Africa

Risk factor N tested HCV positive
N (%)
Adjusted PRa 95% CI
Age 12,164    
 <35 6,249 79 (1.3) 1 -
 35-44 2,894 78 (2.7) 1.86 1.39-2.50
 ≥45 3,021 117 (3.9) 2.84 2.18-3.71
χ 21 for trend    p < 0.001  
Education level 12,156    
 None 1,713 24 (1.4) 1 -
 Primary 1,552 21 (1.3) 0.96 0.52-1.77
 Secondary and higher 8,891 229 (2.6) 0.86 0.46-1.60
Lifetime number of sexual partnersb 10,926    
 0 1,086 1 (0.1) 0.21 0.03-1.55
 1 7,513 146 (1.9) 1 -
 2 1,305 60 (4.6) 1.12 0.84-1.49
 3+ 1,022 65 (6.4) 1.08 0.81-1.44
χ 21 for trend    p = 0.367  
Number of births (parity) 11,199    
 Nulliparous 2,207 21 (0.9) 1 -
 1 3,228 55 (1.7) 1.68d 0.98-2.90
 2 2,644 75 (2.8) 1.81d 1.01-3.26
 3+ 3,120 119 (3.8) 1.84d 1.01-3.38
 χ 21 for trend    p = 0.171  
Induced abortionc 9,166    
 0 5,433 95 (1.7) 1 -
 1 1,750 46 (2.6) 0.97 0.69-1.37
 2+ 1,983 112 (5.6) 1.24 0.93-1.66
 χ 21 for trend    p = 0.121  
Smoking status 12,153    
 Never 10,860 235 (2.2) 1 -
 Ever 1,293 38 (2.9) 1.21 0.88-1.66
HPV DNA-positive 9,984    
 No 8,264 183 (2.2) 1 -
 Yes 1,720 65 (3.8) 1.04 0.80-1.36
  1. aAdjusted for age (5-year groups) and geographical area, as appropriate
  2. bAlgeria excluded because of missing data
  3. cAlgeria and Guinea excluded because of missing data
  4. dCombined PR for ≥ 1 versus 0 = 1.73 (1.02-2.93)