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Table 2 Association between some risk factors and HPV infection

From: Epidemiological patterns of cervical human papillomavirus infection among women presenting for cervical cancer screening in North-Eastern Nigeria

Variable Presence of HPV DNA Total X 2 P value
Age at sexual debut Positive Negative    
  N (%) N (%)    
 <18 years 41 (61.2 %) 26 (38.8 %) 67 (100 %) 6.916 0.009*
 ≥18 years 57 (41.6 %) 80 (58.4 %) 137 (100 %)   
Lifetime sexual partners      
 Single 71 (43.3 %) 93 (56.7 %) 164 (100 %) 7.805 0.005*
 Multiple 26 (68.4 %) 12 (31.6 %) 38 (100 %)   
Age at primigravidity      
 <18 years 24 (75.0 %) 08 (25.0 %) 32 (100 %) 10.554 0.005*
 18–28 years 69 (43.7 %) 89 (56.3 %) 158 (100 %)   
 >28 years 03 (42.9 %) 04 (57.1 %) 07 (100 %)   
Parity      
 Nulliparous 06 (54.5 %) 05 (45.5 %) 11 (100 %) 23.767 <0.001*
 Primiparous 02 (15.4 %) 11 (84.6 %) 13 (100 %)   
Multiparous 32 (35.6 %) 58 (64.4 %) 90 (100 %)   
 Grand multiparous 48 (62.3 %) 29 (37.7 %) 77 (100 %)   
 Great-grand multiparous 12 (80.0 %) 03 (20.0 %) 15 (100 %)   
Presence of co-wives      
 No other wife 59 (46.1 %) 69 (53.9.7 %) 128 (100 %) 1.517 0.468
 One other wife 20 (50.0 %) 20 (50.0 %) 40 (100 %)   
 ≥2 other wives 17 (58.6 %) 12 (41.4 %) 29 (100 %)   
Family history of cervical cancer      
 No 85 (47.0 %) 96 (53.0 %) 181 (100 %) 0.719 0.397
 Yes 14 (56.0 %) 11 (44.9 %) 25 (100 %)   
History of other malignancies      
 No 80 (44.7 %) 99 (55.3 %) 53 (100 %) 7.325 0.007*
 Yes 19 (73.1 %) 07 (26.9 %) 26 (100 %)   
Type of other malignancies      
 Gynaecological 17 (73.9 %) 06 (26.1 %) 23 (100 %) 0.522 0.470
 Others 01 (50.0 %) 01 (50.0 %) 02 (100 %)   
HIV Status      
 Positive 07 (63.6 %) 04 (36.4 %) 11 (100 %)   0.222**
 Negative 47 (43.5 %) 61 (56.5 %) 108 (100 %)   
Hormonal contraceptives      
 No 50 (45.0 %) 61 (55.0 %) 111 (100 %) 0.874 0.350
 Yes 48 (51.6 %) 45 (48.4 %) 93 (100 %)   
Use of condom      
 No 73 (50.3 %) 72 (49.7 %) 145 (100 %) 1.026 0.311
 Yes 26 (42.6 %) 35 (57.4 %) 61 (100 %)   
  1. ** = Fischer’s exact test
  2. * = statistically significant (i.e. <0.05)