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Table 1 Confounding tumor look-alikes.

From: Diagnosis of HIV-related malignancies in resource-constrained settings of sub-Saharan Africa, a cautionary tale for non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma

Tumor Subtype examples/confounding factors Presentation or clinical classification
Fungal infections African histoplasmosis Kaposi’s sarcoma
  Entomophthoromycosis – Basidiobolus ranarum NHL
  HIV-1 lymphadenopathy, follicular hyperplasia NHL
Viral lymphadenopathy EBV lymphadenopathy or lymphoproliferative disorders NHL
  HHV-8 lymphoblastic lymphoma Burkitt lymphoma
  Castleman’s disease Atypical hyperplasia
Pediatric small round cell tumors Undifferentiated neuroblastoma Burkitt lymphoma
  Primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNET) Burkitt lymphoma
Hodgkin’s disease Lymphocyte predominant Burkitt lymphoma
Carcinomas Poorly differentiated NHL