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Table 2 Three multinomial logistic regression models for association of classic Kaposi sarcoma (cKS) and KS-associated herpesvirus with aggregate exposures to plants, adjusted for core-model variables.*

From: Risk of classic Kaposi sarcoma with exposures to plants and soils in Sicily

  cKS cases KSHV-negative controls KSHV + controls*
Variables N OR* 95% CI P N OR* 95% CI P N
Cumulative plant exposure model          
Lifetime contacts with 20 plants¶          
   > 1262 19 0.93 0.35 - 2.44   201 1.73 0.78 - 3.83   16
   281 - 1262 34 1.16 0.47 - 2.85 0.87† 189 1.16 0.54 - 2.50 0.04† 24
   69 - 280 40 0.97 0.40 - 2.32   183 0.58 0.27 - 1.22   28
   0 - 68 29 Ref    179 Ref    20
Plant cluster model          
   Cluster C‡ 4 0.72 0.19 - 2.80 0.64 41 1.17 0.42 - 3.28 0.76 6
   Cluster B 21 2.1 0.83 - 5.29 0.11 153 3.01 1.31 - 6.92 0.01 10
   Cluster A 97 Ref    558 Ref    72
Plant factor model          
Asteraceae factor          
   > median 56 1.12 0.58 - 2.19 0.73 390 1.19 0.68 - 2.07 0.55 43
   ≤ median 66 Ref    362 Ref    45
Euphorbia/Datura/Agave factor          
   > median 59 0.77 0.40 - 1.50 0.44 378 0.66 0.37 - 1.17 0.15 49
   ≤ median 63 Ref    374 Ref    39
Hypericum factor          
   > median 65 0.92 0.46 - 1.84 0.81 366 0.87 0.47 - 1.58 0.64 42
   ≤ median 57 Ref    386 Ref    46
Food/beverage/gladiolus factor          
   > median 61 1.23 0.58 - 2.60 0.58 395 1.51 0.79 - 2.89 0.21 40
   ≤ median 61 Ref    357 Ref    48
  1. * Odds ratios (OR) and confidence intervals (CI), with KSHV+ controls as referent group, are adjusted for the variables in each model, as well as those in the "core model" (Table 1).
  2. ¶ The 20 plants were: Agave americana (Agavaceae), Acanthus mollis (Acanthaceae), Ceratonia siliqua (Fabaceae), Chrozophora tinctoria (Euphorbiaceae), Cichorium intybus (Asteraceae), Datura stramonium (Solanaceae), Dittrichia (formerly Inula) viscosa (Asteraceae), Euphorbia characias (Euphorbiaceae), Euphorbia dendroides (Euphorbiaceae), Euphorbia rigida (Euphorbiaceae), Gladiolus communis o italicus (Iridaceae), Hieracium (Asteraceae), Hypericum hircinum (Clusiaceae), Hypericum perforatum guttiferae (Clusiaceae), Iris sisyrinchium (Iridaceae), Lupinus albus (Fabaceae), Matricaria chamomilla compositae (Asteraceae), Picris echioides (Asteraceae), Taraxacum officinale (Asteraceae), and Trigonella foenum-graecum (Fabraceae).
  3. Ptrend values.
  4. ‡ Cluster C is numerous plant contacts including Hypericum and Euphorbia. Cluster B is numerous plant contacts other than Hypericum and Euphorbia. Cluster A is relatively few plant contacts.