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Table 1 Summary of cancers with increased risks in males (M) and females (F) with HIV/AIDS (PHA) in India

From: Cancer risk in persons with HIV/AIDS in India: a review and future directions for research

Cancer sites with increased risk Relative risks in developed countries Correlated with CD4 loss in PHA Tumor-associated co-viral infections* Incidence in India, relative to developed countries Proportional risk increase in Indian PHA[13] Case observations in Indian PHA**
      M F  
AIDS-defining cancers        
   Kaposi sarcoma > 1000 ++++ KSHV Rare No cases seen Occasional
   Non-Hodgkin lymphoma 20–350 +++ EBV Low 17 10 Multiple
   Cervical cancer 2–20 - HPV Very high   4 Not reported
Non-AIDS defining cancers        
   Anus 20–50 - HPV Low 10 6NS Not reported
   Hodgkin lymphoma 3–18 Inverse EBV Low 4 2NS Occasional
   Vulva and vagina 4–8 - HPV High   8 Not reported
   Head and neck cancers 2–3 - HPV Very high 1NS 2 Not reported
   Testis 1–2 - None Low 2   Not reported
  1. NS Not statistically significant
  2. * KSHV: Kaposi sarcoma herpesvirus (Human Herpesvirus 8); EBV: Epstein Barr virus; HPV: Human papillomavirus
  3. ** Other than description in risk ratio study [13].