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African cancers

Section edited by: Prof Twalib Ngoma  and Prof Henry R Wabinga.

This section will allow African oncologists to describe the current oncology issues along with their findings/achievements for those 'tropical' cancers, such as EBV-related Burkitt lymphoma and schistosomiasis-related bladder cancer, which are considered rare in the rest of the world.

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  1. The incidence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-associated Kaposi Sarcoma (KS) in the pre-antiretroviral therapy (ART) population remains high in several countries in sub-Saharan Africa. We examined trends...

    Authors: Maxwell O. Akanbi, Lucy A. Bilaver, Chad Achenbach, Lisa R. Hirschhorn, Adovich S. Rivera, Olugbenga A. Silas, Patricia A. Agaba, Oche Agbaji, Nathan Y. Shehu, Solomon A. Sagay, Lifang Hou and Robert L. Murphy
    Citation: Infectious Agents and Cancer 2022 17:10
  2. Cervical cancer is one of the most diagnosed and deadly cancers in women globally. Though vaccination is an effective way to reduce cervical cancer, people’s knowledge and acceptance of the vaccination remains...

    Authors: Nebiyu Dereje, Abigia Ashenafi, Anteneh Abera, Efrata Melaku, Kaleb Yirgashewa, Meron Yitna, Sarona Shewaye, Tsedenia Fasil and Yadel Yoseph
    Citation: Infectious Agents and Cancer 2021 16:58
  3. High-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) anal infection is a major problem among men who have sex with men (MSM) living in sub-Saharan Africa. The prevalence of anal HR-HPV infection and associated risk factors...

    Authors: Donato Koyalta, Ralph-Sydney Mboumba Bouassa, Almoustapha Issiaka Maiga, Aliou Balde, Jules Bashi Bagendabanga, Almahdy Ag Alinity, David Veyer, Hélène Péré and Laurent Bélec
    Citation: Infectious Agents and Cancer 2021 16:51

    The Correction to this article has been published in Infectious Agents and Cancer 2021 16:54

  4. Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection remains a major health threat in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). HPV self-sampling could help find and treat cervical cancer at an early stage. We aimed to evaluate the effective...

    Authors: Hanna Amanuel Tesfahunei, Michael Solomon Ghebreyesus, Dawit Getachew Assefa, Eden Dagnachew Zeleke, Joan Acam, Michele Joseph, Emnet Getachew, Violet Dismas Kajogoo, Delayehu Bekele and Tsegahun Manyazewal
    Citation: Infectious Agents and Cancer 2021 16:43
  5. Falciparum and endemic Burkitt lymphoma (eBL) are co-endemic in Africa, but the malaria experience in eBL patients is unknown. A lower prevalence of falciparum has been reported in eBL patients, but those results...

    Authors: Sally Peprah, Martin D. Ogwang, Patrick Kerchan, Steven J. Reynolds, Constance N. Tenge, Pamela A. Were, Robert T. Kuremu, Walter N. Wekesa, Nestory Masalu, Esther Kawira, Isaac Otim, Ismail D. Legason, Leona W. Ayers, Kishor Bhatia, James J. Goedert, Ruth M. Pfeiffer…
    Citation: Infectious Agents and Cancer 2021 16:40
  6. The present study aimed to classify lymphoid neoplasms according to the latest World Health Organization (WHO) classification and outlining the distribution in Nigeria of different entities. Additionally, the ...

    Authors: Ijeoma C. Uzoma, Idowu A. Taiwo, Massimo Granai, Gioia Di Stefano, Ester Sorrentino, Sussana Mannucci, Muheez A. Durosinmi, Stefano Lazzi, Lorenzo Leoncini and Oluyemi Akinloye
    Citation: Infectious Agents and Cancer 2021 16:36
  7. Although cervical cancer is preventable, most women in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) do not receive routine screening and few treatment options exist. Female Sex Workers (FSWs) are among the Ugandan female populati...

    Authors: Gertrude Namale, Yunia Mayanja, Onesmus Kamacooko, Daniel Bagiire, Agnes Ssali, Janet Seeley, Robert Newton and Anatoli Kamali
    Citation: Infectious Agents and Cancer 2021 16:31
  8. Persistent infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) is a critical step in cervical carcinogenesis. We report on type-specific hrHPV persistence, clearance and incidence among screen-positive Rwand...

    Authors: Gad Murenzi, Patrick Tuyisenge, Faustin Kanyabwisha, Athanase Munyaneza, Benjamin Muhoza, Gallican Kubwimana, Anthere Murangwa, Leon Mutesa, Kathryn Anastos and Philip E. Castle
    Citation: Infectious Agents and Cancer 2021 16:16
  9. Kaposi’s sarcoma (KS) is a common HIV-associated malignancy frequently associated with poor outcomes. It is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in major cities of Mozambique. Antiretroviral therapy is the cor...

    Authors: Matthew E. Coldiron, Ana Gabriela Gutierrez Zamudio, Rolanda Manuel, Gilda Luciano, Barbara Rusch, Iza Ciglenecki, Alex Telnov, Rebecca F. Grais, Laurence Toutous Trellu and Lucas Molfino
    Citation: Infectious Agents and Cancer 2021 16:2

    The Letter to the Editor to this article has been published in Infectious Agents and Cancer 2021 16:25

  10. Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) seroprevalence in sub-Saharan African children can range up to 50% by age 2 years but factors affecting early age of KSHV infection are not well understood. Malaria...

    Authors: Katherine R. Sabourin, Sidney Ogolla, Ibrahim I. Daud, Conner L. Jackson, Wendell Miley, Nazzarena Labo, Denise Whitby and Rosemary Rochford
    Citation: Infectious Agents and Cancer 2020 15:71
  11. Cervical cancer screening is slowly transitioning from Pappanicolaou cytologic screening to primary Visual Inspection with Acetic Acid (VIA) or HPV testing as an effort to enhance early detection and treatment...

    Authors: Calleb George Onyango, Lilian Ogonda, Bernard Guyah, Clement Shiluli, Gregory Ganda, Omenge Elkanah Orang’o and Kirtika Patel
    Citation: Infectious Agents and Cancer 2020 15:68
  12. Schistosoma haematobium, the helminth causing urogenital schistosomiasis, is a known bladder carcinogen. Despite the causal link between S. haematobium and bladder cancer, the underlying mechanisms are poorly und...

    Authors: Evaristus C. Mbanefo, Chinwike Terry Agbo, Yuanlong Zhao, Olivia K. Lamanna, Kim H. Thai, Shannon E. Karinshak, Mohammad Afzal Khan, Chi-Ling Fu, Justin I. Odegaard, Irina V. Saltikova, Michael J. Smout, Luke F. Pennington, Mark R. Nicolls, Theodore S. Jardetzky, Alex Loukas, Paul J. Brindley…
    Citation: Infectious Agents and Cancer 2020 15:63
  13. Screening of unvaccinated women remains essential to mitigate the high morbidity/mortality of cervical cancer. Here, we compared visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA), recommended by WHO as the most cost-ef...

    Authors: Elkanah Omenge Orang’o, Edwin Were, Oliver Rode, Kapten Muthoka, Michael Byczkowski, Heike Sartor, Davy Vanden Broeck, Dietmar Schmidt, Miriam Reuschenbach, Magnus von Knebel Doeberitz and Hermann Bussmann
    Citation: Infectious Agents and Cancer 2020 15:57
  14. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma is of high prevalence among HIV-infected people. In particular, the incidence of HIV-associated Burkitt lymphoma (BL) remains high despite the advent of Highly Active Anti-Retroviral Thera...

    Authors: Nontlantla Mdletshe, Andrew Nel, Karen Shires and Shaheen Mowla
    Citation: Infectious Agents and Cancer 2020 15:54
  15. There is growing evidence of the microbiome’s role in human health and disease since the human microbiome project. The microbiome plays a vital role in influencing cancer risk and pathogenesis. Several studies...

    Authors: Paul Katongole, Obondo J. Sande, Moses Joloba, Steven J. Reynolds and Nixon Niyonzima
    Citation: Infectious Agents and Cancer 2020 15:53
  16. HIV-associated cellular immune dysfunction has been linked to higher risk of cervical dysplasia and cancer in HIV infected women. We sought to understand the relationship between HIV and development of epithel...

    Authors: Jonah Musa, Supriya D. Mehta, Chad J. Achenbach, Charlesnika T. Evans, Neil Jordan, Francis A. Magaji, Victor C. Pam, Patrick H. Daru, Olugbenga A. Silas, Atiene S. Sagay, Rose Anorlu, Yinan Zheng, Mamoudou Maiga, Isaac F. Adewole, Robert L. Murphy, Lifang Hou…
    Citation: Infectious Agents and Cancer 2020 15:50
  17. Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) transmission within endemic areas may vary. KSHV seroprevalence has been studied by different groups of researchers using different methods, making it difficult t...

    Authors: Angela Nalwoga, Emily L. Webb, Claudios Muserere, Belinda Chihota, Wendell Miley, Nazzarena Labo, Alison Elliott, Stephen Cose, Denise Whitby and Robert Newton
    Citation: Infectious Agents and Cancer 2020 15:49
  18. The Tumor Microenviroment (TME) is a complex milieu that is increasingly recognized as a key factor in multiple stages of disease progression and responses to therapy as well as escape from immune surveillance...

    Authors: Massimo Granai, Lucia Mundo, Ayse U. Akarca, Maria Chiara Siciliano, Hasan Rizvi, Virginia Mancini, Noel Onyango, Joshua Nyagol, Nicholas Othieno Abinya, Ibrahim Maha, Sandra Margielewska, Wenbin Wei, Michele Bibas, Pier Paolo Piccaluga, Leticia Quintanilla-Martinez, Falko Fend…
    Citation: Infectious Agents and Cancer 2020 15:28

    The Correction to this article has been published in Infectious Agents and Cancer 2020 15:39

  19. The human endogenous retroviruses HERV-K HML-2 have been considered a possible cause of human breast cancer (BrC). A HERV-K HML-2 fully intact provirus Xq21.33 was recently identified in some West African peop...

    Authors: Mark H. Kaplan, Rafael Contreras-Galindo, Evelyn Jiagge, Sofia D. Merajver, Lisa Newman, Galya Bigman, Michael H. Dosik, Ganesh S. Palapattu, Javed Siddiqui, Arul M. Chinnaiyan, Sally Adebamowo and Clement Adebamowo
    Citation: Infectious Agents and Cancer 2020 15:19
  20. Cervical cancer is the leading cause of cancer among women in Swaziland; however, a low rate of cervical screening in this population has led to high rates of morbidity and mortality from cervical cancer.

    Authors: Ibironke O. Aina, Smruti M. Raul, Luz A. Padilla, Simangele Mthethwa-Hleta, Peter O. Preko and Pauline E. Jolly
    Citation: Infectious Agents and Cancer 2020 15:16
  21. Invasive cervical cancer (ICC) is more prevalent in HIV infected women and occurs at younger median age than in HIV negative women. Organized cervical cancer screening (CCS) is presently lacking in Nigeria, an...

    Authors: Jonah Musa, Chad J. Achenbach, Charlesnika T. Evans, Neil Jordan, Patrick H. Daru, Olugbenga Silas, Atiene S. Sagay, Rose Anorlu, Supriya D. Mehta, Firas Wehbe, Melissa A. Simon, Isaac F. Adewole, Lifang Hou and Robert L. Murphy
    Citation: Infectious Agents and Cancer 2019 14:43
  22. In Ethiopia, most cervical cancer patients present at advanced cancer stages, long time after they experience first symptoms. We investigated possible predictors of long time spans between symptom onset and pa...

    Authors: Matthias Begoihn, Assefa Mathewos, Abreha Aynalem, Tigeneh Wondemagegnehu, Ulrike Moelle, Muluken Gizaw, Andreas Wienke, Christoph Thomssen, Dawit Worku, Adamu Addissie, Ahmedin Jemal and Eva Johanna Kantelhardt
    Citation: Infectious Agents and Cancer 2019 14:36
  23. The Instituto Angolano de Controlo do Cancer (IACC) Cancer Registry in Luanda, Angola is the most ancient and organized hospital-based cancer registry in Angola and provides data on cancer cases treated in sev...

    Authors: Fernando Miguel, Maria José Bento, Gonçalo Forjaz de Lacerda, Elisabete Weiderpass and Lúcio Lara Santos
    Citation: Infectious Agents and Cancer 2019 14:35
  24. To characterize the clinico-pathological features including estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and Her-2/neu (HER2) expression in breast cancers in Botswana, and to compare them by HIV status.

    Authors: Rohini K. Bhatia, Mohan Narasimhamurthy, Yehoda M. Martei, Pooja Prabhakar, Jeré Hutson, Sebathu Chiyapo, Ignetious Makozhombwe, Michael Feldman, Mukendi K. A. Kayembe, Kum Cooper and Surbhi Grover
    Citation: Infectious Agents and Cancer 2019 14:28
  25. Polyomavirus hominis1, also called BK virus (BKV) is a well-known etiological agent of renal transplant nephropathy and cystitis. Recently, it got great attention from the researcher as a principal predisposing f...

    Authors: Babbiker Mohammed Taher Gorish, Mohammed Elfatih Hussein Ournasseir and Iman Mohammed Shammat
    Citation: Infectious Agents and Cancer 2019 14:25
  26. Ethiopia lies in the high-risk corridor of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in East Africa, where individuals with this malignancy often do not report established risk factors, suggesting unidentified etiolo...

    Authors: Maria E. Leon, Endale Kassa, Abate Bane, Tufa Gemechu, Yared Tilahun, Nigatu Endalafer, Sandrine McKay-Chopin, Rosario N. Brancaccio, Gilles Ferro, Mathewos Assefa, Elizabeth Ward, Massimo Tommasino, Abraham Aseffa, Joachim Schüz, Ahmedin Jemal and Tarik Gheit
    Citation: Infectious Agents and Cancer 2019 14:19
  27. Burkitt lymphoma (BL) is a relatively common cancer of childhood in tropical Africa, although its precise incidence and continent-wide geographic distribution have not been previously systematically studied.

    Authors: Lucia Hämmerl, Murielle Colombet, Rosemary Rochford, David Martin Ogwang and Donald Maxwell Parkin
    Citation: Infectious Agents and Cancer 2019 14:17
  28. The impact of South Africa’s high human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) burden on cancer risk is not fully understood, particularly in the context of antiretroviral treatment (ART) availability. We examined natio...

    Authors: Tafadzwa Dhokotera, Julia Bohlius, Adrian Spoerri, Matthias Egger, Jabulani Ncayiyana, Victor Olago, Elvira Singh and Mazvita Sengayi
    Citation: Infectious Agents and Cancer 2019 14:12
  29. Cervical cancer is the second most prevalent cancer among women of child-bearing age in Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to determine human papilloma virus (HPV) genotype distribution among HIV-negative wom...

    Authors: Dawit Wolday, Muluken Derese, Solomon Gebressellassie, Bekure Tsegaye, Wondwossen Ergete, Yirgu Gebrehiwot, Orit Caplan, Dana G. Wolf and Shlomo Maayan
    Citation: Infectious Agents and Cancer 2018 13:28
  30. Plasmablastic lymphoma (PBL) clinical descriptions are scarce from sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) where both HIV and EBV are highly endemic. We identified 12 patients with pathologically confirmed PBL from a prospec...

    Authors: Takondwa Zuze, Matthew S. Painschab, Ryan Seguin, Evarista Kudowa, Bongani Kaimila, Edwards Kasonkanji, Tamiwe Tomoka, Bal Mukunda Dhungel, Maurice Mulenga, Maria Chikasema, Blessings Tewete, Asekanadziwa Ntangwanika, Sarah Chiyoyola, Fred Chimzimu, Coxcilly Kampani, Robert Krysiak…
    Citation: Infectious Agents and Cancer 2018 13:22
  31. Despite the increasing incidence of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) in Algeria, scarce information is available on the importance of the preventable etiological factors which may drive the disease. Re...

    Authors: Nora Kariche, Montserrat Torres Hortal, Samir Benyahia, Laia Alemany, Nabila Moulaï, Omar Clavero, Marleny Muñoz, Wahiba Ouahioune, Djamel Djennaoui, Chafia Touil-Boukoffa, Silvia de Sanjosé and Mehdi Bourouba
    Citation: Infectious Agents and Cancer 2018 13:8
  32. Kaposi’s sarcoma (KS) is a common HIV-associated malignancy associated with disability, pain and poor outcomes. The cornerstone of its treatment is antiretroviral therapy, but advanced disease necessitates the...

    Authors: Vini Fardhdiani, Lucas Molfino, Ana Gabriela Zamudio, Rolanda Manuel, Gilda Luciano, Iza Ciglenecki, Barbara Rusch, Laurence Toutous Trellu and Matthew E Coldiron
    Citation: Infectious Agents and Cancer 2018 13:5
  33. The oncogenic potential of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in breast cancer is being increasingly recognized. Despite some controversies regarding such role, new evidence is suggesting a culpability of EBV in breast ...

    Authors: Ghimja Fessahaye, Ahmed M. Elhassan, Elwaleed M. Elamin, Ameera A. M. Adam, Anghesom Ghebremedhin and Muntaser E. Ibrahim
    Citation: Infectious Agents and Cancer 2017 12:62
  34. Breast cancer is a leading cause of morbidity and deaths among women worldwide. In Tanzania there is no published data on human epidermal growth receptor-2 (HER2/neu) expression in breast carcinoma. Hormonal r...

    Authors: Amos Rodger Mwakigonja, Nyanda Elias Lushina and Ally Mwanga
    Citation: Infectious Agents and Cancer 2017 12:60
  35. Cervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer in women worldwide with highest incidence reported in Eastern Africa in 2012. The primary goal of this study was to study the expression of p16INK4a in squamous ce...

    Authors: Hina Sarwath, Devendra Bansal, Nazik Elmalaika Husain, Mahmoud Mohamed, Ali A. Sultan and Shahinaz Bedri
    Citation: Infectious Agents and Cancer 2017 12:50
  36. Lymphoma is highly associated with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), which contributes to worse outcomes relative to resource-rich settings, and frequent failure of first-line chemotherapy. However, there are n...

    Authors: Bongani Kaimila, Toon van der Gronde, Christopher Stanley, Edwards Kasonkanji, Maria Chikasema, Blessings Tewete, Paula Fox and Satish Gopal
    Citation: Infectious Agents and Cancer 2017 12:45
  37. Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) remain an important public health problem with approximately half a billion new cases annually among persons aged 15–49 years. Epidemiological data on STIs among women of...

    Authors: Themba G. Ginindza, Cristina D. Stefan, Joyce M. Tsoka-Gwegweni, Xolisile Dlamini, Pauline E. Jolly, Elisabete Weiderpass, Nathalie Broutet and Benn Sartorius
    Citation: Infectious Agents and Cancer 2017 12:29
  38. HPV infections are ubiquitous and particularly common among sexually active young women. However, there are regional and national variations in age-specific HPV prevalence, which have implications for cervical...

    Authors: Adolf K. Awua, Richard M. K. Adanu, Edwin K. Wiredu, Edwin A. Afari and Alberto Severini
    Citation: Infectious Agents and Cancer 2017 12:26
  39. Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) contamination of food is very high in most sub-Saharan African countries. AFB1 is known to cause hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) by inducing mutation in the tumour suppressor gene TP53. The num...

    Authors: Patrick W. Narkwa, David J. Blackbourn and Mohamed Mutocheluh
    Citation: Infectious Agents and Cancer 2017 12:17
  40. There is limited information about the challenges of cancer management and attempts at improving outcomes in Africa. Even though South and North Africa are better resourceds to tackle the burden of breast canc...

    Authors: V. Vanderpuye, S. Grover, N. Hammad, PoojaPrabhakar, H. Simonds, F. Olopade and D. C. Stefan
    Citation: Infectious Agents and Cancer 2017 12:13
  41. Cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) remain high due to several factors including low levels of uptake of cervical cancer screening. Self-collection of cervicovaginal sampl...

    Authors: Fatima Modibbo, K. C. Iregbu, James Okuma, Annemiek Leeman, Annemieke Kasius, Maurits de Koning, Wim Quint and Clement Adebamowo
    Citation: Infectious Agents and Cancer 2017 12:11
  42. The African Organization for Research and training in Cancer (AORTIC) bases the following position statements on a critical appraisal of the state on cancer research and cancer care in Africa including informa...

    Authors: J. Olufemi Ogunbiyi, D. Cristina Stefan and Timothy R. Rebbeck
    Citation: Infectious Agents and Cancer 2016 11:63
  43. Little is known about the epidemiological characteristics of papillomavirus (HPV) infection among North African countries. Herein, we conducted a molecular epidemiological study to investigate prevalence of HP...

    Authors: R. Ghedira, W. Mahfoudh, S. Hadhri, S. Gabbouj, I. Bouanene, H. Khairi, A. Chaieb, R. Khelifa, N. Bouaouina, S. Remadi, A. A. Elmi, D. Bansal, A. A. Sultan, R. Faleh, A. Zakhama, L. Chouchane…
    Citation: Infectious Agents and Cancer 2016 11:61
  44. Tanzania, like other low-income countries, has an increasing cancer burden that remains underestimated. Infection-associated malignancies, particularly HIV-infection, represent a great proportion of cancer bur...

    Authors: Julee A. Campbell, Amr S. Soliman, Crispin Kahesa, Sioban D. Harlow and Diwani Msemo
    Citation: Infectious Agents and Cancer 2016 11:58
  45. More deaths occur in African women from invasive cervical cancer (ICC) than from any other malignancy. ICC is caused by infection with oncogenic types of human papillomavirus (HPV). Co-infection with the human...

    Authors: Aaron Ermel, Brahim Qadadri, Yan Tong, Omenge Orang’o, Benson Macharia, Doreen Ramogola-Masire, Nicola M. Zetola and Darron R. Brown
    Citation: Infectious Agents and Cancer 2016 11:56
  46. Chronic Hepatitis B infection is a major health problem in Republic of Congo therefore molecular analysis of HBV strains is important to detect the patients at high risk of disease progression.

    Authors: Brunel Monic Angounda, Gildas Hoffman Ngouloubi, Amélia Bokilo Dzia, Luc Magloire Anicet Boumba, Warda Baha, Donatien Moukassa, Gabriel Ahombo, Moulay Mustapha Ennaji and Jean-Rosaire Ibara
    Citation: Infectious Agents and Cancer 2016 11:51
  47. The human papillomavirus (HPV) is the causative agent of cervical cancer, which is the leading cancer-related cause of death for women in Sub-Saharan Africa. In 2013, the Gabonese Ministry of Health and the Sy...

    Authors: Pamela Boundzanga Moussavou, Ismaël Hervé Koumakpayi, Andriniaina Andy Nkili-Meyong, Ingrid Labouba, Ulrich Bisvigou, Junie K. Chansi, Corinne Engohan-Aloghe, Frederic Dissanami, Nathalie Ambounda, Anne-Sophie Delannoy-Vieillard, Laure Diancourt, Dieudonne Nkoghe, Eric M. Leroy, Ernest Belembaogo and Nicolas Berthet
    Citation: Infectious Agents and Cancer 2016 11:50

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