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Table 4 The adjusted analysis of factors associated with cervical, vulvar, anal and oral human papillomavirus infection among sexually active women from the general population in two communities in Ibadan, Nigeria

From: Prevalence and genotype specific concordance of oro-genital and anal human papillomavirus infections among sexually active Nigerian women

Variable Cervical Vulvar Anal Oral
p value1 adjusted OR (95%CI)8 p value1 adjusted OR (95%CI)8 p value1 adjusted OR (95%CI)8 p value1 adjusted OR (95%CI)8
Socio-demographic factors
Study site p = 0.576 p = 0.373 p = 0.075 p = 0.004
 Mokola 1 1 1 1
 Moniya/Sasa 0.82 (0.51–1.31) 1.27 (0.75–2.13) 0.63 (0.38–1.05) 0.38 (0.19–0.74)
Age group, years p = 0.018 p = 0.509 p = 0.521 p = 0.693
 18–24 1 1 1 1
 25–34 0.81 (0.46–1.41) 0.89 (0.49–1.63) 0.96 (0.54–1.72) 0.80 (0.38–1.68)
 35–45 0.44 (0.25–0.78) 0.67 (0.34–1.33) 0.70 (0.37–1.35) 0.72 (0.32–1.61)
Ethnicity p = 0.258 p = 0.589 p = 0.920 p = 0.316
 Yoruba 1 1 1 1
 Others2 1.43 (0.77–2.65) 1.22 (0.63–2.38) 0.97 (0.51–1.83) 0.67 (0.30–1.49)
Religion p = 0.648 p = 0.544 p = 0.945 p = 0.767
 Christianity/traditional 1 1 1 1
 Islam 0.89 (0.55–1.46) 0.80 (0.47–1.36) 0.98 (0.59–1.65) 1.11 (0.56–2.17)
Highest education level p = 0.168 p = 0.580 p = 0.556 p = 0.904
 None/primary 1 1 1 1
 Secondary 1.48 (0.81–2.72) 1.05 (0.54–2.02) 1.32 (0.71–2.46) 1.15 (0.48–2.77)
 Tertiary 0.90 (0.45–1.83) 0.71 (0.32–1.57) 1.02 (0.48–2.15) 0.99 (0.35–2.78)
Quranic education p = 0.659 p = 0.897 p = 0.857 p = 0.968
 No 1 1 1 1
 Yes 0.89 (0.55–1.46) 0.94 (0.55–1.59) 1.05 (0.63–1.73) 1.01 (0.52–1.98)
Occupation p = 0.551 p = 0.878 p = 0.520 p = 0.984
 No current paid job3 1 1 1 1
 Unskilled worker 0.75 (0.25–2.30) 0.71 (0.14–3.55) 1.22 (0.26–5.70) 1.14 (0.26–4.99)
 Semi-skilled worker 1.11 (0.58–2.15) 0.86 (0.24–3.15) 1.11 (0.33–3.76) 1.09 (0.46–2.55)
 Skilled worker 0.61 (0.21–1.78) 0.66 (0.13–3.24) 0.53 (0.12–2.40) 0.83 (0.15–4.51)
Income per month4 p = 0.175 p = 0.057 p = 0.084 p = 0.700
 No income 1 1 1 1
 1–10,000 N (1–28USD) 1.26 (0.57–2.79) 0.99 (0.43–2.30) 0.75 (0.33–1.69) 0.83 (0.29–2.36)
 10,001–20,000 N (> 28–56USD) 1.11 (0.48–2.55) 1.43 (0.57–3.57) 2.33 (0.85–6.42) 1.17 (0.40–3.41)
  > 20,000 N (> 56USD) 1.62 (0.66–3.99) 2.62 (0.96–7.13) 0.79 (0.21–2.94) 0.69 (0.21–2.31)
Current marital status p = 0.334 p = 0.027 p = 0.073 p = 0.497
 Single 1 1 1 1
 Married 0.79 (0.43–1.46) 0.49 (0.25–0.99) 0.47 (0.24–0.91) 1.11 (0.50–2.45)
 Divorced/widowed/separated5 1.67 (0.48–5.73) 1.64 (0.38–7.00 0.44 (0.13–1.48) 2.42 (0.60–9.76)
Behavioural factors Adjusted OR (95%CI)9 Adjusted OR (95%CI)9 Adjusted OR (95%CI)9 Adjusted OR (95%CI)9
Age at first vaginal sex6, years p = 0.700 p = 0.276 p = 0.252 p = 0.202
  ≤ 15 1 1 1 1
 16–17 0.81 (0.29–2.23) 0.44 (0.12–1.58) 0.41 (0.13–1.33) 3.19 (0.78–13.04)
  ≥ 18 1.11 (0.49–2.51) 0.87 (0.29–2.56) 0.75 (0.29–1.99) 1.76 (0.50–6.22)
Age difference between first vaginal sex partner and participant, years7 p = 0.133 p = 0.026 p = 0.050 p = 0.570
  ≤ 5 1 1 1 1
  ≥ 6 0.78 (0.46–1.31) 0.51 (0.29–0.90) 0.58 (0.34–1.00) 0.82 (0.42–1.61)
Number of vaginal sex p = 0.002 p < 0.001 p < 0.001 p = 0.404
 Partners (mean (SD)) 1.54 (1.16–2.04) 2.03 (1.38–3.01) 1.92 (1.35–2.71) 1.09 (0.89–1.33)
Ever cleansed inside vagina p = 0.409 p = 0.072 p = 0.573 p = 0.310
 No 1 1 1 1
 Yes 1.39 (0.63–3.07) 2.61 (0.91–8.77) 1.32 (0.50–3.48) 1.50 (0.70–3.22)
Condom use at last vaginal sex p = 0.923 p = 0.701 p = 0.967 p = 0.909
 No 1 1 1 1
 Yes 0.97 (0.50–1.86) 2.76 (0.97–7.88) 1.32 (0.50–3.48) 1.05 (0.44–2.50)
Ever had oral sex (given/received) p = 0.354 p = 0.802 p = 0.850 p = 0.977
 No 1 1 1 1
 Yes 1.46 (0.65–3.27) 1.12 (0.45–2.81) 0.92 (0.41–2.08) 1.01 (0.40–2.60)
Ever had transactional sex p = 0.321 p = 0.276 p = 0.145 p = 0.266
 No 1 1 1 1
 Yes 0.56 (0.18–1.74) 0.44 (0.10–1.87) 0.37 (0.10–1.40) 2.04 (0.59–7.13)
Ever had mutual masturbation p = 0.133 p = 0.204 p = 0.959 p = 0.508
 No 1 1 1 0.76 (0.34–1.69)
 Yes 1.57 (0.87–2.82) 1.55 (0.79–3.02) 1.02 (0.54–1.93)  
Female genital mutilation p = 0.516 p = 0.758 p = 0.584 p = 0.696
 No 1 1 1 1
 Yes 0.80 (0.48–1.33) 1.09 (0.62–1.94) 1.17 (0.67–2.02) 1.14 (0.59–2.19)
Ever drank alcohol p = 0.571 p = 0.864 p = 0.696 p = 0.710
 No 1 1 1 1
 Yes 0.85 (0.52–1.39) 1.07 (0.52–2.19) 1.15 (0.58–2.26) 1.15 (0.56–2.35)
Ever taken any illicit drugs p = 0.105 p = 0.080 p = 0.168 p = 0.437
 No 1 1 1 1
 Yes 3.23 (0.67–15.49) 4.95 (0.58–41.88) 2.63 (0.61–11.33) 0.61 (0.17–2.23)
Ever had an STI p = 0.895 p = 0.558 p = 0.303 p = 0.511
 No 1 1 1 1
 Yes 1.05 (0.50–2.20) 1.29 (0.54–3.07) 1.54 (0.67–3.50) 1.33 (0.57–3.09)
Ever heard of HPV p = 0.091 p = 0.781 p = 0.077 p = 0.887
 No 1 1 1 1
 Yes 0.40 (0.14–1.18) 0.85 (0.25–2.76) 0.35 (0.11–1.17) 1.10 (0.30–4.04)
Biological factors Adjusted OR (95%CI)10 Adjusted OR (95%CI)10 Adjusted OR (95%CI)10 Adjusted OR (95%CI)10
Cervical HPV infection NA p < 0.001 p < 0.001 p = 0.003
 No   1 1 1
 Yes   20.75 (10.99–39.17 4.10 (1.85–9.11) 4.81 (1.58–14.62)
Vulvar HPV infection p < 0.001 NA p < 0.001 p = 0.371
 No 1   1 1
 Yes 12.85 (5.70–28.99)   5.85 (2.35–14.59) 0.57 (0.17–1.95)
Anal HPV infection p < 0.001 p < 0.001 NA p = 0.136
 No 1 1   1
 Yes 3.48 (1.74–6.96) 15.31 (8.12–28.86)   2.02 (0.78–5.25)
Oral HPV infection p < 0.004 p = 0.016 p = 0.119 NA
 No 1 1 1  
 Yes 4.37 (1.50–12.71) 2.53 (1.13–5.67) 2.13 (0.80–5.64)  
  1. Bold indicates p <0.05 or 95% level of statistical significance
  2. 1p values were obtained from Likelihood Ratio tests; 2Hausa/Fulani, Igbo and other minorities;; 3Student, apprentice and no job; 4 N—Naira-currency of Nigeria; USD—United States Dollar; 5Living alone; 6 N = 299-six participants did not provide information on age at first vaginal sex; 7 N = 269—36 participants did not provide information to calculate the age difference between first vaginal sex partner and participant; 8Level 1 factors were adjusted for age and study site and other level 1 factors that were significant at p value < 0.10; 9Level 2 factors were adjusted for age and study site (core variables from Level 1), other factors significant at level 1, and other level 2 factors that were significant at p value < 0.10; 10Level 3 factors were adjusted for (core variables from Level 1), other level 1 factors, level 2 factors that were significant at p value < 0.10, and various biological factors, such as the detection of HPV genotype in the cervical, vulvar, anal and oral cavities of the participant; NA not applicable