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Table 3 Descriptive summaries and unadjusted factors associated with cervical, vulvar, anal and oral human papillomavirus infection among sexually active women from the general population in two communities in Ibadan, Nigeria

From: Prevalence and genotype specific concordance of oro-genital and anal human papillomavirus infections among sexually active Nigerian women

Variable Cervical Vulvar Anal Oral
n/N (row, %) P value1 Crude OR (95%CI) n/N (row, %) p value1 Crude OR (95%CI) n/N (row, %) p value1 Crude OR (95%CI) n/N (row, %) p value1 Crude OR (95%CI)
Socio-demographic factors
Study site   p = 0.413   p = 0.942   p = 0.010   p = 0.003
 Mokola 96/155 (62%) 1 107/157 (68%) 1 98/153 (64%) 1 32/143 (23%) 1
 Moniya/Sasa 86/150 (57%) 0.83 (0.52–1.31) 103/152 (68%) 0.98 (0.61–1.58) 74/150 (49%) 0.55 (0.35–0.87) 14/143 (10%) 0.38 (0.19–0.74)
Age group, years   p = 0.015   p = 0.525   p = 0.122   p = 0.664
 18–24 79/118 (67%) 1 86/121 (71%) 1 74/120 (62%) 1 20/111 (18%) 1
 25–34 62/100 (58%) 0.81 (0.46–1.41) 68/100 (68%) 0.86 (0.49–1.54) 57/97 (59%) 0.89 (0.51–1.53) 15/92 (16%) 0.89 (0.43–1.85)
 35–45 41/87 (47%) 0.44 (0.25–0.78) 56/88 (61%) 0.71 (0.40–1.28) 41/86 (48%) 0.57 (0.32–0.99) 11/83 (13%) 0.70 (0.31–1.54)
Ethnicity   p = 0.175   p = 0.676   p = 0.612   p = 0.786
 Yoruba 136/236 (58%) 1 161/239 (67%) 1 131/234 (56%) 1 35/222 (16%) 1
 Others2 46/69 (67%) 1.47 (0.84–2.58) 49/70 (70%) 1.13 (0.63–2.02) 41/69 (59%) 1.15 (0.67–1.99) 11/64 (17%) 1.11 (0.53–2.33)
Religion   p = 0.840   p = 0.541   p = 0.451   p = 0.678
 Christianity/traditional 85/141 (60%) 1 99/142 (70%) 1 81/137 (59%) 1 23/135 (17%) 1
 Islam 97/164 (59%) 0.95 (0.60–1.51) 111/167 (66%) 0.86 (0.53–1.39) 91/166 (55%) 0.84 (0.53–1.33) 23/151 (15%) 0.88 (0.47–1.64)
Highest education level   p = 0.104   p = 0.749   p = 0.269   p = 0.866
 None/primary 32/62 (52%) 1 41/62 (66%) 1 29/61 (48%) 1 8/57 (14%) 1
 Secondary 111/171 (65%) 1.73 (0.96–3.13) 122/175 (70%) 1.18 (0.64–2.18) 101/171 (59%) 1.59 (0.88–2.87) 28/165 (17%) 1.25 (0.53–2.93)
 Tertiary 39/72 (54%) 1.11 (0.56–2.19) 47/72 (65%) 0.96 (0.47–1.97) 42/71 (59%) 1.60 (0.80–3.19) 10/64 (16%) 1.13 (0.41–3.10)
Quranic education   p = 0.954   p = 0.840   p = 0.998   p = 0.842
 No 116/194 (60%) 1 134/196 (68%) 1 109/192 (57%) 1 29/184 (16%) 1
 Yes 66/111 (59%) 0.99 (0.61–1.59) 76/113 (67%) 0.95 (0.58–1.56) 63/111 (57%) 1.00 (0.62–1.60) 17/102 (17%) 1.07 (0.56–2.06)
Occupation   p = 0.409   p = 0.791   p = 0.121   p = 0.935
 No current paid job3 33/52 (63%) 1 39/54 (72%) 1 37/54 (69%) 1 9/50 (18%) 1
 Unskilled worker 9/18 (50%) 0.58 (0.19–1.70) 12/18 (67%) 0.77 (0.24–2.42) 11/18 (61%) 0.72 (0.24–2.19) 3/17 (18%) 0.98 (0.23–4.12)
 Semi-skilled worker 131/215 (61%) 0.90 (0.48–1.68) 147/217 (68%) 0.81 (0.42–1.56) 116/211 (55%) 0.56 (0.30–1.06) 32/202 (16%) 0.86 (0.38–1.94)
 Skilled worker 9/20 (45%) 0.47 (0.17–1.34) 12/20 (60%) 0.58 (0.20–1.69) 8/20 (40%) 0.31 (0.11–0.89) 2/17 (12%) 0.61 (0.12–3.14)
Income per month4   p = 0.407   p = 0.207   p = 0.070   p = 0.556
 No income 19/33 (58%) 1 24/35 (69%) 1 23/35 (66%) 1 6/34 (18%) 1
 1–10,000 N (1–28USD) 124/209 (59%) 1.07 (0.51–2.26) 79/125 (65%) 0.79 (0.35–1.75) 67/122 (55%) 0.64 (0.29–1.39) 16/112 (14%) 0.78 (0.28–2.18)
 10,001–20,000 N (> 28–56USD) 33/49 (67%) 1.52 (0.61–3.79) 57/85 (86%) 0.93 (0.40–2.17) 39/82 (48%) 0.47 (0.21–1.08) 16/77 (21%) 1.22 (0.43–3.46)
  > 20,000 N (> 56USD) 6/24 (43%) 0.55 (0.16–1.96) 50/64 (50%) 1.64 (0.65–4.14) 43/64 (67%) 1.07 (0.45–2.55) 8/63 (13%) 0.68 (0.21–2.15)
Current marital status   p = 0.107   p = 0.040   p < 0.001   p = 0.323
 Single 54/79 (68%) 1 63/82 (77%) 1 61/82 (74%) 1 14/75 (19%) 1
 Married 117/210 (56%) 0.58 (0.34–1.01) 134/211 (64%) 0.52 (0.29–0.94) 104/206 (50%) 0.35 (0.20–0.62) 28/197 (14%) 0.72 (0.36–1.46)
 Divorced/widowed/separated5 11/16 (69%) 1.02 (0.32–3.24) 13 (81%) 1.31 (0.34–5.07) 7/15 (47%) 0.30 (0.10–0.93) 4/14 (29%) 1.74 (0.48–6.38)
Behavioural factors
Age at first vaginal sex6, years   p = 0.642   p = 0.612   p = 0.255   p = 0.082
  ≤ 15 20/32 (63%) 1 25/33 (76%) 1 23/33 (70%) 1 3/31 (20%) 1
 16–17 26/42 (62%) 0.98 (0.38–2.52) 28/42 (67%) 0.64 (0.23–1.78) 22/42 (52%) 0.48 (0.18–1.25) 11/39 (15%) 3.67 (0.92–14.57)
  ≥ 18 133/225 (59%) 0.87 (0.40–1.86) 154/228 (68%) 0.67 (0.29–1.55) 124/222 (56%) 0.55 (0.25–1.21) 31/211 (12%) 0.55 (0.14–2.09)
Age difference between first vaginal sex partner and participant, years7   p = 0.232   p = 0.002   p = 0.005   p = 0.617
  ≤ 5 87/137 (64%) 1 106/139 (76%) 1 91/138 (66%) 1 24/134 (18%) 1
  ≥ 6 71/132 (54%) 0.67 (0.41–1.09) 79/134 (59%) 0.45 (0.27–0.75) 63/129 (46%) 0.49 (0.30–0.81) 19/122 (16%) 0.85 (0.44–1.63)
Number of vaginal sex partners   p = 0.001   p < 0.001   p < 0.001   p = 0.198
 (Mean (SD)) 1.91 (1.41) 1.46 (1.16–1.84) 1.91 (1.41) 1.59 (1.21–2.07) 1.89 (1.40) 1.50 (1.19–1.90) 1.89 (1.43) 1.14 (0.94–1.38)
Ever cleansed inside vagina   p = 0.294   p = 0.097   p = 0.876   p = 0.125
 No 18/35 (51%) 1 20/36 (56%) 1 20/36 (56%) 1 34/235 (14%) 1
 Yes 164/270 (61%) 1.46 (0.72–2.96) 190/273 (70%) 1.83 (0.90–3.71) 152/267 (57%) 1.06 (0.52–2.13) 12/51 (24%) 1.82 (0.87–3.82)
Condom use at last vaginal sex   p = 0.719   p = 0.204   p = 0.508   p = 0.685
 No 148/250 (59%) 1 168/253 (66%) 1 138/247 (56%) 1 38/242 (16%) 1
 Yes 34/55 (62%) 1.12 (0.61–2.03) 42/56 (75%) 1.52 (0.79–2.93) 34/56 (61%) 1.22 (0.68–2.21) 8/44 (18%) 1.19 (0.51–2.77)
Ever had oral sex (given/received)   p = 0.008   p = 0.131   p = 0.205   p = 0.410
 No 146/258 (57%) 1 173/261 (66%) 1 142/257 (55%) 1 7/33 (21%) 1
 Yes 36/47 (77%) 2.51 (1.22–5.15) 37/48 (77%) 1.71 (0.83–3.52) 30/46 (65%) 1.52 (0.79–2.92) 39/253 (15%) 0.68 (0.27–1.67)
Ever had transactional sex   p = 0.748   p = 0.272   p = 0.376   p = 0.2841
 No 170/286 (59%) 1 195/290 (67%) 1 160/285 (56%) 1 42/271 (16%) 1.98 (0.60–6.52)
 Yes 12/19 (63%) 1.17 (0.45–3.06) 15/19 (79%) 1.83 (0.59–5.65) 12/18 (67%) 1.56 (0.57–4.28) 4/15 (27%)  
Ever had mutual masturbation   p = 0.130   p = 0.162   p = 0.402   p = 0.875
 No 38/73 (52%) 1 46/75 (61%) 1 40/76 (53%) 1 11/71 (16%) 1
 Yes 144/232 (62%) 1.51 (0.89–2.56) 164/234 (70%) 1.48 (0.86–2.54) 132/227 (58%) 1.25 (0.74–2.10) 35/215 (16%) 1.06 (0.51–2.22)
Female genital mutilation   p = 0.445   p = 0.443   p = 0.938   p = 0.935
 No 88/142 (62%) 1 101/144 (70%) 1 78/138 (57%) 1 21/129 (16%) 1
 Yes 94/163 (58%) 0.84 (0.53–1.32) 109/165 (66%) 0.83 (0.51–1.34) 94/165 (57%) 1.02 (0.65–1.61) 25/157 (16%) 0.97 (0.52–1.84)
Ever drank alcohol   p = 0.179   p = 0.012   p = 0.003   p = 0.199
 No 128/223 (57%) 1 144/225 (64%) 1 115/222 (52%) 1 30/209 (14%) 1
 Yes 54/82 (66%) 1.43 (0.84–2.43) 66/84 (79%) 2.06 (1.15–3.71) 57/81 (70%) 2.21 (1.28–3.81) 16/77 (21%) 1.57 (0.80–3.07)
Ever taken any illicit drugs   p = 0.011   p = 0.008   p = 0.010   p = 0.813
 No 165/285 (58%) 1 190/287 (66%) 1 154/281 (55%) 1 43/265 (16%) 1
 Yes 17/20 (85%) 4.12 (1.18–14.38) 20/22 (91%) 5.10 (1.17–22.29) 18/22 (82%) 3.71 (1.22–11.24) 3/31 (14%) 0.86 (0.24–3.05)
Ever had an STI   p = 0.381   p = 0.209   p = 0.014   p = 0.286
 No 155/264 (59%) 1 178/267 (68%) 1 141/261 (54%) 1 37/245 (15%) 1
 Yes 27/41 (66%) 1.36 (0.68–2.71) 32/42 (76%) 1.60 (0.75–3.40) 31/42 (74%) 2.40 (1.16–4.98) 9/41 (22%) 1.58 (0.70–3.58)
Ever heard of HPV   p = 0.039   p = 0.232   p = 0.014   p = 0.890
 No 173/282 (61%) 1 197/286 (69%) 1 165/281 (59%) 1 43/266 (16%) 1
 Yes 9/23 (39%) 0.41 (0.17–0.97) 13/23 (57%) 0.59 (0.25–1.39) 7/12 (32%) 0.33 (0.13–0.83) 3/20 (15%) 0.92 (0.26–3.26)
Biological factors
Cervical HPV infection NA NA   p < 0.001   p < 0.001   p < 0.001
 No    41/123 (33%) 1 30/121 (25%) 1 7/116 (6%) 1
 Yes    166/182 (91%) 20.75 (10.99–39.17) 138/177 (78%) 10.73 (6.23–18.50) 38/165 (23%) 4.66 (2.00–10.86)
Vulvar HPV infection   p < 0.001 NA NA   p < 0.001   p = 0.016
 No 16/98 (16%) 1    15/93 (16%) 1 8/91 (9%) 1
 Yes 166/207 (80%) 20.75 (10.99–39.17)    156/209 (75%) 15.31 (8.11–28.86) 38/194 (20%) 2.53 (1.13–5.67)
Anal HPV infection   p < 0.001   p < 0.001 NA NA   p < 0.001
 No 39/130 (30%) 1 53/131 (40%) 1    10/122 (8%) 1
 Yes 138/168 (82%) 10.73 (6.23–18.50) 156/171 (91%) 15.31 (8.12–28.86)    36/158 (23%) 3.30 (1.57–6.97)
Oral HPV infection   p < 0.001   p = 0.016   p < 0.001 NA NA
 No 127/236 (54%) 1 156/239 (65%) 1 122/234 (52%) 1   
 Yes 38/45 (84%) 4.66 (2.00–10.86) 38/46 (83%) 2.53 (1.13–5.67) 36/46 (78%) 3.30 (1.57–6.97)   
  1. Bold indicates p <0.05 or 95% level of statistical significance
  2. 1p-values were obtained from Wald tests; 2Hausa/Fulani, Igbo and other minorities; 3Student, apprentice and no job; 4Naira- currency of Nigeria; USD –United States Dollar; 5Living alone; 6 N = 299 -six participants did not provide information on age at first vaginal sex; 7 N = 269—36 participants did not provide information to calculate the age difference between first vaginal sex partner and participant; NA not applicable