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Table 1 Socio-demographic characteristics of sexually active females in two communities in Ibadan, Nigeria

From: Prevalence and genotype specific concordance of oro-genital and anal human papillomavirus infections among sexually active Nigerian women

Variable Total N = 310 Mokola N = 157 Moniya/Sasa N = 153 p value
N (% column) N (%column) n (% column)  
Socio-demographic factors (level 1)
Age, years
 Mean (SD) 29 (7) 28 (7) 29 (8) 0.481
Age group, years
 18–24 121 (39%) 61 (39%) 60 (39%)  
 25–34 101 (33%) 60 (38%) 41 (27%) 0.040
 35–45 67 (28%) 36 (23%) 52 (33%)  
Ethnicity
 Yoruba 240 (77%) 95 (61%) 145 (95%)  
 Hausa/Fulani 37 (12%) 33 (21%) 4 (2%)  
 Igbo 19 (6%) 16 (10%) 3 (2%)  < 0.001
 Others ethnic minorities 13 (4%) 13 (8%) 1 (1%)  
Religion
 Christianity 140 (45%) 91 (58%) 49 (32%)  
 Islam 168 (54%) 64 (41%) 104 (68%)  < 0.001
 Traditional 2 (1%) 2 (1%) 0 (0%)  
Highest education level
 No formal education 6 (2%) 2 (1%) 4 (3%)  
 Primary 56 (18%) 26 (16%) 30 (20%) 0.403
 Secondary 176 (57%) 87 (55%) 89 (58%)  
 Tertiary 72 (23%) 42 (27%) 30 (20%)  
Quranic education
 No 197 (64%) 98 (62%) 99 (65%) 0.676
 Yes 113 (36%) 59 (38%) 54 (35%)  
Occupation
 No current paid job (e.g. student, housewife) 54 (17%) 36 (23%) 18 (12%)  
 Unskilled worker (e.g. office assistant) 18 (6%) 9 (6%) 9 (6%) 0.066
 Semi-skilled worker (e.g. driver, tailor) 218 (70%) 104 (66%) 114 (75%)  
 Skilled worker (e.g. teacher, technician, doctor) 20 (7%) 8 (5%) 12 (8%)  
Income per month
 No income 35 (11%) 17 (11%) 18 (12%)  
 1–10,000 N (1–28USD) 126 (41%) 106 (67%) 105 (68%) 0.951
 10,001–20,000 N (> 28–56USD) 85 (27%) 26 (17%) 24 (16%)  
  > 20,000 N (> 56USD) 64 (21%) 8 (5%) 6 (4%)  
Current marital status
 Single and Living alone 82 (27%) 59 (38%) 23 (15%)  
 Married and living as married 212 (68%) 89 (57%) 123 (80%)  
 Divorced/widowed/separated and living alone 16 (5%) 9 (6%) 7 (5%)  < 0.001
Items personally owned by participant
 Mobile phone 265 (85%) 124 (79%) 141 (92%) 0.001
 Television 161 (62% 39 (25%) 122 (80%)  < 0.001
 Radio 124 (40%) 26 (17%) 98 (64%)  < 0.001
 Generator 77 (25%) 16 (10%) 61 (40%)  < 0.001
 House 14 (5%) 1 (1%) 13 (9%) 0.001
Behavioural factors (Level 2)
Age at first vaginal sex1, years
 ≤ 18 133 (44%) 73 (48%) 60 (39%)  
 19–21 106 (35%) 47 (31%) 59 (39%) 0.324
 22–24 39 (13%) 21 (14%) 18 (12%)  
 ≥ 25 26 (9%) 11 (7%) 15 (10%)  
Age of first vaginal sex partner2, years  
 Mean (SD) = 274 19 (3) 19 (3) 20 (3) 0.779
Age difference between first vaginal sex partner and participant, years3     0.808
 ≤ 5 139 (51%) 69 (50%) 70 (51%)  
  ≥ 6 135 (49%) 69 (50%) 66 (49%)  
Number of lifetime partners for vaginal sex      < 0.001
 Number of vaginal sex partners (mean (SD)) 1.90 (1.41) 2.21 (1.75) 1.59 (0.82)  
Number of lifetime partners for vaginal sex     
 Single vaginal partner 163 (53%) 73 (47%) 90 (59%) 0.030
 Multiple vaginal sex partners (≥ 2) 147 (47%) 84 (53%) 63 (41%)  
Ever cleansed inside vagina4
 No 36 (12%) 33 (21%) 3 (2%)  < 0.001
 Yes 274 (88%) 124 (79%) 150 (98%)  
Condom use during last vaginal sex
 No 254 (82%) 119 (76%) 135 (88%) 0.004
 Yes 56 (18%) 38 (24%) 18 (12%)  
Ever gave oral sex to a male partner
 No 275 (89%) 132 (84%) 143 (93%) 0.009
  Yes 35 (11%) 25 (16%) 10 (7%)  
Ever received oral sex from a male partner 274 (88%) 131 (83%) 143 (93%)  
 No 36 (12%) 26 (17%) 10 (7%) 0.006
 Yes     
Ever had transactional sex
 No 291 (94%) 145 (92%) 146 (95%) 0.260
 Yes 19 (6%) 12 (8%) 7 (5%)  
Ever had mutual masturbation5     
 No 76 (25%) 20 (13%) 56 (37%)  < 0.001
 Yes 234 (75%) 137 (87%) 97 (63%)  
Female genital mutilation6
 No 144 (46%) 85 (54%) 59 (39%) 0.006
 Yes 166 (54%) 72 (46%) 94 (61%)  
Ever drank alcohol
 No 226 (73%) 90 (57%) 136 (89%)  < 0.001
 Yes 84 (27%) 67 (43%) 17 (11%)  
Ever taken any illicit drugs7
 No 307 (99%) 154 (98%) 153 (100%) 0.2484
 Yes 3 (1%) 3 (2%) 0 (0%)  
Ever had an STI
 No 267 (86%) 129 (82%) 138 (90%) 0.041
 Yes 43 (14%) 28 (18%) 15 (10%)  
Ever heard of HPV
 No 287 (93%) 149 (95%) 138 (90%) 0.114
 Yes 23 (7%) 8 (5%) 15 (10%)  
Biological factors (Level 3)
Cervical HPV infection8     0.413
 No 123 (40%) 59 (38%) 64 (43%)  
 Yes 182 (60%) 96 (62%) 86 (57%)  
Vulvar HPV infection     0.941
No 99 (32%) 50 (32%) 49 (32%)  
Yes 210 (68%) 107 (68%) 103 (68%)  
Anal HPV infection9     0.010
 No 131 (43%) 55 (36%) 76 (51%)  
 Yes 172 (57%) 98 (64%) 74 (49%)  
Oral HPV infection10     0.004
 No 240 (84%) 111 (78%) 129 (90%)  
 Yes 46 (16%) 32 (22%) 14 (10%)  
  1. 16 missing; 236 missing; 3 N = 269—36 participants did not provide information to calculate the age difference between first vaginal sex partner and participant; 4Cleansing of vagina was defined as using water or another substance to clean inside vagina by inserting half or whole finger; 5Mutual masturbation question was ‘have you or your partner ever touched each other’s genital area by hand? (Yes or No); 6Female genital mutilation was based on the clinical examination of the female external genitalia for evidence of genital circumcision by the research nurse at the clinic (Yes or No); 7Illicit drugs are banned substances or drugs taken by participants for non-medical reasons in Nigeria; 8 N = 305—four participants did not have cervical HPV results; 9 N = 298-seven participants did not have anal HPV results; 10 N = 281–24 participants did not have oral HPV results