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Table 1 Characteristics of included RCTs

From: Human papillomavirus self-sampling versus standard clinician-sampling for cervical cancer screening in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

Author, Year Characteristics Sample size (in each group) Intervention information Design Inclusion criteria Exclusion criteria Outcomes
Gizaw et al. 2019 [17] Ethiopia, Rural and Urban Population, Women around Butajira vicinity Age: 30–49 2356: intervention arm: 1213 control arm 1143 Intervention: HPV self-sampling in the primary health care unit at their vicinity in a private area under active supervision by a trained health professional
Prior Sensitization on cervical cancer and HPV and instruction on self-sampling given.
Device: Evalyn Brush (Rovers)
Specimen: not specified
Control: Butajira hospital for VIA screening
Cluster RCT Age: 30–49
Never been screened before
Women were excluded if they were pregnant, actively bleeding, had a previous hysterectomy, and refused to give consent before the screening. Uptake and Linkage to care
Modibbo et al. 2017 [18] Nigeria. Semi-urban.
Women residing in Karu
Age: 30–65.
400 intervention: 200
control: 200
Intervention: HPV self-sampling kit directly mailed to home address with prepaid return envelope (or could drop off completed kit at designated collection points in community or at the hospital). Unsupervised. Collected at home.
Prion sensitization; health education on cervical cancer, its risk factors.
Device: Dry flocked Swab.
Specimen; Cervicovaginal
Control: clinician- Collected HPV testing appointment at hospital clinic.
RCT Inclusion criteria were women aged between 30 and 65 years, living or working in Karu who do not plan to move out of the community over the next 6 months. Pregnant, planning to relocate within six months, HIV positive, had unexplained cervical bleeding, history of hysterectomy, mental illness or cervical cancer from the study. Uptake of HPV testing services and Acceptance.
Moses et al. 2015 [20] Uganda.
Women residing in Kisenyi near Kampala
Age: 30–65.
500 intervention: 250; control 250. Intervention: HPV self-sampling.
Instruction, how to self-collect a vaginal specimen using a standard script and diagram by the outreach workers.
No prior sensitization Unsupervised. At work place or home up on recruitment.
Device: Dacron swab.
Specimen; Cervicovaginal
Control: VIA Screened in Kisenyi healthcare center
RCT Included if between 30 and 65 years of age, lived or worked in Kisenyi, and had access to a mobile telephone. Who had an intact uterus and cervix. Excluded if they had a previous hysterectomy or cervical cancer, if they did not meet the eligibility criteria or if they were unable to give consent Uptake of screening and Linkage to care
Megan et al. 2018 [19] Kenya, Rural setting, women residing in Migori, western Kenya Age, 25–65 4944 intervention arm = 2898 control = 2046 Intervention: HPV self-sampling screening was offered in tents around villages Under supervision of community health volunteers (CHV).
Self-screening instruction given by CHV
Prion sensitization on cervical cancer and HPV.
Device: not mentioned
Specimen: Vaginal
Control: Clinician- collected HPV screening was offered at government health facilities in Migori.
Cluster RCT. Communities were considered eligible if they had at least one government health facility with the capacity to offer HPV testing, received support from community leaders for community outreach and/or health campaigns, offered access to health centers via a maintained transportation route and were not bordering other study sites to limit contamination between arms (buffer zones). Urban settings were excluded from the study. Uptake of screening, acceptance and linkage to care.