Skip to main content

Table 1 Maternal demographics, clinical characteristics, and pregnancy history and newborn clinical characteristics (N = 70)

From: Malaria during pregnancy and transplacental transfer of Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) antibodies: a cohort study of Kenyan mother and child pairs

   Malaria during pregnancy  
Total (N = 70) Never (n = 32) Any (n = 38) p-value
Maternal characteristics
Mother’s age at enrollment (mean) [sd] 22 [6.2] 22.3 [6.5] 21.7 [6] 0.69
Mother’s tribe: Luo vs. Luhya 61 (87.1) 28 (87.5) 33 (86.8) 1.00
Mother's education: Upper primary school or higher vs. Lower primary school or lower 55 (78.6) 25 (78.1) 30 (78.9) 0.93
Mother's marital status: Married vs Single/widowed 47 (67.1) 21 (65.6) 26 (68.4) 0.80
Maternal bed net use: Yes vs. No 68 (97.1) 30 (93.8) 38 (100) 0.21
Maternal gravidity
 Nulliparous 25 (35.7) 9 (28.1) 16 (42.1) 0.27
 Primiparous 22 (31.4) 13 (40.6) 9 (23.7)  
 Multiparous 23 (32.9) 10 (31.3) 13 (34.2)  
Worm infection during pregnancy** 16 (22.9) 5 (15.6) 11 (28.9) 0.28
Hypergammaglobulinemia (Adjusted venous blood concentration): > 30 mg/ml 19 (27.1) 6 (18.8) 13 (34.2) 0.14
Sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) given during pregnancy or delivery 70 (100) 32 (100) 38 (100) 1.00
Total antenatal clinic (ANC) visits
 1 4 (5.7) 3 (9.4) 1 (2.6) 0.008*
 2 6 (8.6) 4 (12.5) 2 (5.3)  
 3 17 (24.3) 12 (37.5) 5 (13.2)  
 4 43 (61.4) 13 (40.6) 30 (78.9)  
Neonate characteristics
Child sex: Male vs Female 35 (50) 20 (62.5) 15 (39.5) 0.05
Child birthweight (mean) [sd] 3176 [415] 3169 [396] 3182 [436] 0.90
 Normal (> 2500 g) vs low birthweight (≤2500 g) 64 (91.4) 30 (93.8) 34 (89.5) 0.68
Gestational age at birth (mean) [sd] 38.8 [3.4] 38.4 [3.6] 39.2 [3.1] 0.38
 Full term (≥38 weeks) vs Preterm (< 38 weeks) 50 (71.4) 22 (68.8) 28 (73.7) 0.65
Among women with malaria during pregnancy (n = 38)
Placental malaria 4 (10.5) < 0.001*
Gestational age at latest malaria exposure: > 27+ weeks vs ≤26 weeks    24 (63.2) 0.10
Malaria incidence rate (events/100 person-weeks) (mean) [sd] 8.8 [5.2] < 0.001*
  1. Data are presented as number (percent) unless otherwise specified
  2. Abbreviation: sd standard deviation
  3. *p-values < 0.05 considered statistically significant
  4. **All variables have complete data except worm infection which was missing for 5(15.6%) women with no malaria during pregnancy and 2(5.3%) with malaria during pregnancy