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Table 1 The association between patient characteristics and HPV status of patients

From: Association of human papilloma virus (HPV) infection with oncological outcomes in urothelial bladder cancer

  Group HPV p-value
Negative (%) Positive (%)
Sex Male 64 (78) 21 (87.5) 0.393a
Female 18 (22) 3 (12.5)
Cigarette smoker Smoker 59 (72) 22 (91.7) 0.045b
Non-smoker 23 (28) 2 (8.3)
Family history of cancer Positive 36 (43.9) 11 (45.8) 0.867b
Negative 46 (56.1) 13 (54.2)
Tumor grade Low grade 52 (63.4) 7 (29.2) 0.003b
High grade 30 (36.6) 17 (70.8)
Tumor stage Ta 45 (54.9) 5 (20.8) < 0.0001a
T1 10 (12.2) 3 (12.5)
T2 26 (31.7) 7 (29.2)
T3-T4 1 (1.2) 9 (37.5)
Muscle invasion Positive 27 (32.9) 16 (66.7) 0.003b
Negative 55 (67.1) 8 (33.3)
Recurrence after 18 month Positive 37 (45.1) 24 (100) < 0.0001b
Negative 45 (54.9) 0 (0)
a Fisher exact test; b Chi square test