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Table 1 The interactions between viral factors and cellular targets via NF-κB pathway

From: The interplay between EBV and KSHV viral products and NF-κB pathway in oncogenesis

Virus Viral Factor Cellular Target Mechanism/Effect
  LMP-1 ID1 Induction of ID1 suppresses p16INK4a and promotes cell-cycle progression
  GLUT-1 Elevates glucose uptake and facilitates tumor growth
  hTERT Activates telomerase and leads to cell immortalization
  DNMT3 Stimulation of DNMT3 downregulates PTEN resulting in Proliferation, invasion, transformation and metastasis
  miR-146a Modulates interferon response
  HIF-1α Mediates for survival and progression of tumor cells
EBV   Bmi-1 Derives proliferation and cell survival
  PD-L1 Leads to malignant cell escape
BRAF-1 Cyclin D1 Elevation of Cyclin D1 represses p21WAF1 mediating proliferation and progression of malignant cells
  miR-146a Activation of miR-146a inhibits SMAD4 inducing cell proliferation and tumor progression
vFLIP IMI Regulates Innate immunity and facilitates KSHV latency
  EZH2 Positive regulation of EZH2 increases ephrin-B2 and induce Angiogenesis
  miR-146a Enhancement of miR-146a decrease CXCR4 mRNA, facilitating progenitor release of virally infected endothelial cells
KSHV vGPCR IL-8, Gro1, IκB, COX-2, cIAP2, and Bcl2 Causes anti-apoptotic response, tumor-associated angiogenesis, cell survival, invasion and inflammation
miR-K12–1 STAT3/IL-6 Results in tumor promotion