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Table 1 Clinical and pathological results of patients in the groups

From: Overexpression of programmed cell death ligand 1 in patients with CIN and its correlation with human papillomavirus infection and CIN persistence

  Group 1 (n = 29)
HR-HPV(−)
CIN 0
Group 2 (n = 21)
HR-HPV(+)
CIN 0
Group 3 (n = 20)
HR-HPV(+)
CIN1
Group 4 (n = 24)
HR-HPV(+)
CIN2–3
P value
Age (year), mean ± SD 44.3 ± 10.6 42.2 ± 12.4 42.7 ± 10.3 39.1 ± 7.6 0.1698*
Parity, n (min-max) 1 (0–4) 2 (0–6) 1 (1–5) 2 (0–5) 0.1245#
Initial pap test results
ASCUS 22 7 4 1 <  0.0001#
L-SIL 7 9 11 5  
H-SIL or ASC-H 5 5 18  
HR-HPV types
16 9 4 3  
18 8 8 5 <  0.0001#
Other 0 5 5  
Multiple 4 3 11  
Ki-67, median (min-max) 25 (5–60) 29 (0–85) 24 (5–100) 82 (30–100) <  0.0001$
p16, median (min-max) 25 (0–80) 34 (0–51.5) 20 (0–66) 67,5 (15–100) 0.0025$
Number of immune cells 27.9 ± 6.7 33.5 ± 6.2 34.1 ± 5.8 36.3 ± 6.9 0.4190*
Leep or Conization rate, n (%) 0 1/21 8/20 24/24 <  0.0001#
HPV persistence 2 3 4 0.0296#
CIN persistence or recurrence 1 0 3 0.0581#
  1. *ANOVA, #Chi-Squared, $Kruskal Wallis test
  2. Ki-67 expression: Goup IV different from group I, II, III. No differences between group I, II, III
  3. p16 expression: Group IV different from group I, II, III. No differences between group I, II, III