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Table 5 Possible predictors of cervical and oral human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, stratified by HPV status in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive women

From: Cervical and oral human papillomavirus infection in women living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and matched HIV-negative controls in Brazil

Predictors of HPV infectionHPV+ (N = 56)OR (CI)PCervical HPV+ (N = 51)OR (CI)POral HPV+ (N = 11)OR (CI)P
N (%)N (%)N (%)
Age (years)
 18–297/13 (58.4)17/13 (58.3)1 0/13 (0)
 30–5035/76 (46.1)0.60 (0.19–2.01)0.5330/76 (39.5)0.46 (0.15–1.54)0.348/76 (10.5)1 
  > 5014/27 (51.8)0.76 (0.20–3.02)0.7414/27 (51.8)0.76 (0.19–3.03)0.743/27 (11.1)1.06 (0.26–4.33)> 0.99
Race
 White24/48 (50.0)0.54 (0.16–1.69)0.3922/48 (45.8)0.46 (0.14–1.45)0.266/48 (12.5)2.28 (0.25–20.51)0.66
 Brown21/49 (42.9)0.40 (0.12–1.26)0.1618/49 (36.7)0.31 (0.09–0.99)0.054/49 (8.2)1.42 (0.14–13.70)> 0.99
 Black11/17 (64.7)111/17 (64.7)1 1/17 (5.9)1 
 Asian0 (0)0 (0)0 (0)
Sexual debut (years)
  < 1622/45 (48.9)121/45 (46.7)1 4/ (8.9)1 
  ≥ 1634/70 (48.6)0.98 (0.47–2.06)130/70 (42.9)1.16 (0.55–2.44)0.707/70 (10.0)1.14 (0.31–4.13)> 0.99
Smoking status
 Never smoker26/56 (46.4)1.64 (0.62–4.08)0.3525/56 (44.6)2.11 (0.80–5.58)0.163/56 (5.4)0.49 (0.09–2.60)0.40
 Current smoker20/30 (66.7)3.80 (1.22–10.42)0.0118/30 (60.0)3.94 (1.31–11.76)0.015/30 (16.7)1.73 (0.38–7.02)0.70
 Ex-smoker10/29 (34.5)18/29 (27.6)1 3/29 (10.3)1 
Lifetime number of sexual partners
  < 525/51 (49.0)125/51 (49.0)1 5/51 (9.8)1 
  ≥ 531/64 (48.4)0.97 (0.48–1.98)126/64 (40.6)0.71 (0.34–1.50)0.456/64 (9.4)1.19 (0.31–4.46)> 0.99
Use of hormonal Contraceptives
 Yes11/20 (55.0)19/20 (45.0)1 2/20 (10.0)1 
 No45/95 (47.4)0.73 (0.29–1.98)0.942/95 (44.2)0.96 (0.36–2.55)> 0.999/95 (9.5)0.94 (0.18–4.73)> 0.99
  1. OR = Odds ratio; CI = confidence interval