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Table 2 Risk factors, clinical presentation, histology and staging

From: Management guidelines of penile cancer- a contemporary review of sub-Saharan Africa

StudyRisk FactorsClinical PresentationHistologyStage (TMN/Jackson)ILN status + MetastasisGrade + Metastasis
Ngendaho et al. [7]Phimosis: 50% Poor Hygiene:80%
Smoking: 56.7%
Lichen Sclerosis:13.3%
Subpreputial symptoms: 63.3%
Penile Ulceration:26.7%
Meatal lesion: 10%
SCC: 100%T1:3.3%
T2: 36.7%T3: 56.7%T4:3.3%
N0:43.3%
N1:20%
N2:23.3%
N3:13.3%
M1: 16.7%
G1:43.3% G2: 50% G3: 6.7%
Diallo et al. [8]Late Circumcision: 66.7%Fungating
Ulcerated
SCC: 100%T1:16.7
T2:33.3%
T3:50%
N2:66.7%
M1:16.7%
G1:33.3%
G2:16.7%
G3:50%
Magoha et al. [9]Uncircumcision: 72.7%
Late Circmcision: 21.8%
N/ASCC:100%Stage 1: 18.2%
Stage 2: 12.7%
Stage 3: 50.9%
Stage 4: 18.2%
N/AN/A
Wentzel et al. [10]N/AN/ASCC: 80%
VC: 15.4%
N/AN/AN/A
Gueye et al. [11]Uncircumcision: 18.2%
Late Circmcision: 27.3%
Phimosis: 18.2%
N/ASCC: 90.9%Stage 1: 36.4%
Stage 2: 45.5%
Stage 3: 18.2%
N: 27.3%
M1: 0%
N/A
Ajekigbe et al. [12]N/AUlcerated
Warty
SCC: 100%N/AN/AN/A
Sow et al. [13]Childhood circumcision: 100%Ulceration
Fungating
Fungating + Ulcerated
SCC: 87.5%
NHL: 12.5%
Stage 3&4: 100%N2&N3: 100%N/A
Abdulkadir et al. [14]N/AN/ASCC: 100%N/AN/AN/A
Chayla et al. [15]Uncircumcision: 89.8%
Smoking: 77.1%
Phimosis: 62.3%
Repeated STDs: 22.9%
 SCC: 99.2%Stage 1: 10.2%
Stage 2: 11.2%
Stage 3: 55.9%
Stage 4: 12.7%
N: 65.3%
M: 4.2%
 
Sow et al. [16]Poor hygieneFungating + UlceratedSCC: 100%T1: 12.5%
T2: 50%
T3: 37.5%
T4: 00%
N0: 62.5%
N1: 00%
N2: 12.5%
N3: 37.5%
M1: 00%
G1: 25%
G2: 62.5%
G3: 12.5%
  1. G Grade, M Metastasis, N Node, NHL Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma, N/A Not Available, SCC Squamous Cell Carcinoma, T Tumor