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Table 1 Characteristics of esophageal and gastroesophageal junction cancer cases and matched healthy controls with biospecimens tested

From: Prevalence of human papillomavirus and Helicobacter pylori in esophageal and gastroesophageal junction cancer biopsies from a case–control study in Ethiopia

  Esophageal (N = 62) Healthy control (N = 56) Pearson Chi2 p-value
N % N %
Sex
 Male 29 47% 28 50% 0.73
 Female 33 53% 28 50%
Age at recruitment (years)
  < 40 6 10% 6 11% 0.67
 40–49 10 16% 11 20%
 50–59 18 29% 20 36%
 60+ 28 45% 19 34%
Ethnicity
 Oromo 31 50% 24 43% 0.39
 Amhara 8 13% 15 27%
 Gurage 7 11% 5 9%
 Somali 6 10% 3 5%
 Other 10 16% 9 16%
Region of residence
 Oromia 38 61% 32 57% 0.90
 South Ethiopia (SNNP) 13 21% 13 23%
 Other 11 18% 11 20%
Education
 None 14 23% 42 75% < 0.01
 Any schooling 48 77% 13 23%
 Missing . . 1 2%
Religion
 Christian 24 39% 38 68% < 0.01
 Other 38 61% 18 32%
Alcohol use
 Never alcohol drinker 42 68% 31 55% 0.16
 Former alcohol drinker 15 24% 14 25%
 Current alcohol drinker 5 8% 11 20%
Tobacco use
 Never tobacco user 42 68% 47 84% 0.03
 Former tobacco user 11 18% 8 14%
 Current tobacco user 9 15% 1 2%
Center of enrolment
 Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital . . 56 100%  
 Mexico Higher Clinic 40 65% . .
 Adera Higher Clinic 22 35% . .
Location of tumor
 . . . 56 100%  
 Upper third of esophagus 4 6% . .
 Middle third of esophagus 19 31% . .
 Lower third of esophagus 21 34% . .
 Esophagus, unspecified 7 11% . .
 Junction 11 18% . .
Histology
 . . . 56 100%  
 Squamous cell carcinoma 46 74% . .
 Adenocarcinoma 11 18% . .
 Mixed 3 5% . .
 Other 2 3% . .