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Table 6 Frequency of PIK3CA mutations identified in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma worldwide

From: PIK3CA mutations are frequent in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma associated with chagasic megaesophagus and are associated with a worse patient outcome

References Year Country (Region) Patients of study PIK3CA mutated (%) Type of sample Techniques
Mori et al. [24] 2008 Japan 88 2.2% FT Direct Sequencing
Wang et al. [30] 2013 China 76 3.9% FT Direct Sequencing
Akagi et al. [17] 2009 Japan 52 7.7% FFPE Direct Sequencing
Kim et al. [21] 2016 Korea 534 10.5% FFPE Direct Sequencing
Phillips et al. [25] 2006 Australia 35 11.8% FFPE Direct Sequencing
Zheng et al. [33] 2016 China 79 19.7% FT Pyrosequencing
Shigaki et al. [27] 2013 China 219 21.0% FT Pyrosequencing
Liu et al. [23] 2017 China 210 22.9% FFPE Pyrosequencing
Baba et al. [18] 2015 Japan 440 23.0% FFPE Pyrosequencing
Yang et al. [31] 2017 China 24 4.2% FFPE NGS
Song et al. [28] 2014 China 158 4.5% FT NGS
Lin et al. [22] 2014 China 139 7.0% FFPE NGS
Gao et al. [19] 2014 Japan 133 9.0% FT NGS
Sawada et al. [26] 2016 Japan 144 10.4% FT NGS
TCGA et al. [9] 2017 Western and Eastern 90 13.0% FT NGS
Yokota et al. [37] 2018 Japan 126 13.5% FFPE NGS
Zhang et al. [32] 2015 China 90 17.0% FT NGS
Wang et al. [29] 2015 USA 71 24.0% FFPE NGS
  1. NGS – next generation sequencing; FFPE – formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue; FT – fresh frozen tissue