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Table 1 The clinical-pathological features of the three groups of patients

From: PIK3CA mutations are frequent in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma associated with chagasic megaesophagus and are associated with a worse patient outcome

Variable   Groups (n = 89)  
Category CM/ESCC (n = 23) ESCC (n = 38) CM (n = 28) p-value
Gender Female 4 (17.4%) 7 (18.4%) 4 (14.3%) 0.937**
Male 19 (82.6%) 31 (81.6%) 24 (85.7%)
Age (years) Mean (SD) 59 (11) 57 (9) 59 (11) 0.039 ***
Min - Max 37–76 36–75 37–76
Alcohol consumption No 7 (31.8%) 8 (21.1%) 20 (71.4%) < 0.001 *
Yes 15 (68.2%) 30 (78.9%) 8 (28.6%)
Missing 11 0 0  
Tobacco consumption No 4 (18.2%) 6 (15.8%) 16 (57.1%) < 0.001 *
Yes 18 (81.8%) 32 (84.2%) 12 (42.9%)
Missing 1 0 0  
Tumor differentiation Well differentiated 5 (22.7%) 7 (19.4%) NA 0.639**
Moderate differentiated 16 (72.7%) 24 (66.7%) NA
Poorly differentiated 1 (4.5%) 5 (13.9%) NA
Missing 1 2 NA  
TNM Staging I/II 4 (23.5%) 16 (42.1%) NA 0.235*
III/IV 13 (76.5%) 22 (57.9%) NA
Missing 6 0 NA  
Megaesophagus grades GI/GII 10 (45.5%) NA 4 (14.3%) 0.025 *
GIII/GIV 12 (54.5%) NA 24 (85.7%)
Missing 1 NA 0  
  1. *Chi-square association test; **Fisher’s exact test; ***Analysis of variance. CM/ESCC – chagasic megaesophagus associated with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma; ESCC – esophageal squamous cell carcinoma without chagasic megaesophagus; CM – chagasic megaesophagus without esophageal squamous cell carcinoma; SD - standard deviation; NA – not applicable; Bold numbers - statistical significance