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Table 1 Clinical Characteristics of Children with Endemic HIV-Negative KS vs HIV-Related KS

From: Endemic Kaposi sarcoma in HIV-negative children and adolescents: an evaluation of overlapping and distinct clinical features in comparison with HIV-related disease

Epidemiologic subtype of kaposi sarcoma Endemic HIV-related p
Number of Patients 20 70  
Number of Females 6 (30%) 35 (50%) 0.11a
Median Age in years (range) 9.3 (2.0–16.3) 8.4 (1.7–17.9) 0.57b
Pathology Confirmation 8 (40%) 14 (20%) 0.07a
Clinical Site(s) of KS Involvement
 Lymph Node 10 (50%) 52 (74%) 0.03a
 Hyperpigmented Skin Lesions 9 (45%) 42 (60%) 0.21a
 Woody Edema 8 (40%) 17 (24%) 0.18a
 Flesh Colored Subcutaneous Nodules 7 (35%) 23 (33%) 0.89a
 Oral 1 (5%) 20 (29%) 0.03c
 Lymph Node ONLY 5 (25%) 18 (26%) 0.95a
 Visceral 0 11 (16%) 0.06c
 Disseminated (ie ≥20) Hyperpigmented Skin/Oral Lesions 4 (20%) 7 (10%) 0.26c
Anemia (hemoglobin < 8) at KS diagnosis 9 (45%) 25 (37%) * 0.54a
Thrombocytopenia (platelet count < 100) at KS diagnosis 8 (40%) 19 (28%) * 0.32a
Treatment Outcome    
 Alive in Complete Remission 9 (45%) 33 (47%) 0.31c
 Alive with Stable Disease 4 (20%) 6 (9%)
 Death 7 (35%) 31 (44%)
Lilongwe Pediatric KS Staging Classification*    
 Stage 1A (mild cutaneous/oral KS) 0 0 0.08c
 Stage 1B (moderate cutaneous/oral KS) 4 (20%) 3 (4%)
 Stage 2 (lymphadenopathic KS) 6 (30%) 34 (50%)
 Stage 3 (woody edema KS) 6 (30%) 14 (21%)
 Stage 4 (visceral and/or disseminated KS) 4 (20%) 17 (25%)
  1. Legend: KS Kaposi sarcoma, * in the HIV-related KS cohort, 67 patients had baseline blood count assessments and 68 patients were fully staged.aP-value estimated using the Chi-square test;bChi-square P-value estimated from the k-sample equality of medians test;cP-value estimated using the Fisher’s exact test