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Table 4 Case-control studies on the association between PID and ovarian cancer

From: The potential role of infectious agents and pelvic inflammatory disease in ovarian carcinogenesis

Author & publication year Region Data collection Number of cases Number of controls Odds/Hazard- ratios (HR)
Rasmussen et al. (2013) [78] Denmark Interview 554 1.564 0.83 95% CI: 0.65–1.05
Lin et al. (2011) [75] Taiwan Database 67.936 135.872 1.92 95% CI: 1.27–2.92 (HR)
2.46 95% CI: 1.48–4.09c (HR)
Merritt et al. (2007) [76] Australia Questionnaire 1.576 1.509 1.15 95% CI: 0.85–1.57
Ness et al. (2000) [72] USA Interview 616 1.367 1.3 95% CI: 0.6–2.5
Parazzini et al. (1996) [79] Italy Questionnaire/interview 971 2.758 0.7 95% CI: 0.4–1.3
Risch et al. (1995) [74] Canada Interview 450 564 1.53 95% CI: 1.10–2.13a
1.88 95% CI: 1.13–3.12b
Shu et al. (1989) [77] Hong Kong Interview 172 172 3.0 95% CI: 0.3–30.2
  1. aOne episode of PID
  2. bTwo or more episodes of PID
  3. cFive or more episodes of PID