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Table 1 Carcinogenic mechanisms of investigated viruses in relation to ovarian cancer

From: The potential role of infectious agents and pelvic inflammatory disease in ovarian carcinogenesis

Virus Viral family Key viral transforming factors Mechanisms Associated cancers
Human papillomavirus Papillomaviridae E6
E7
Inhibition of apoptosis
Immune evasion
Cell cycle arrest
Immune evasion [8, 10, 11]
Anal/rectal cancer
Cervical cancer
Oro-pharyngeal cancer
(Ovarian cancer)a
Penile cancer
Vaginal
Vulvar cancer
Epstein bar virus Herpesviridae EBNA 1
EBNA 2
EBNA-3A
Latent membrane protein 1
Inhibition of apoptosis
B-cell growth transformation
Cell cycle disruption
Cell cycle disruption
Inhibition of apoptosis
Promotion of cell immortalisation [48, 49]
Burkitt lymphoma
Gastric adenocarcinoma
Hodgkin lymphoma
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma
Non-Hodgkin lymphoma
(Ovarian cancer)
Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease
Cytomegalovirus Herpesviridae IE1/IE2 Inhibition of antiviral immune response
Inhibition of apoptosis
Mucoepidermoid carcinoma of salivary glands
(Ovarian cancer)
US28 gene Enhanced proliferative signaling [44, 45]  
John Cunningham virus/BK virus Polyomaviridae T-antigen/t-antigen Cell cycle disruption Inhibition of apoptosis [56] (Ovarian cancer)
Hepatitis C virus Flaviviridae (Indirect) Chronic inflammation and oxidative stress
Inhibition of antioxidant systems
Hepatocellular carcinoma
(Ovarian cancer)
(Direct)
NS5B
NOS2A
NS3/4A protease
Cell cycle disruption
Inhibition of apoptosis
Inhibition of DDR response [51,52,53]
 
  1. DDR Double-stranded DNA Repair, EBNA Epstein Barr virus nuclear antigen, IE Immediate early genes, NOS2A Nitric oxide synthase 2A, NS3/4A/5B Nonstructural protein 3/4A/5B
  2. aCausality is controversial and is still under investigation