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Table 2 Relationship between anal HPV infection and socio-demographic, epidemiologic and clinical risk factors in the studied population

From: Human papillomavirus infection in anal intraepithelial lesions from HIV infected Cuban men

Variables N (%) HPV-positive
N (%)
HPV-negative
N (%)
p value OR (CI 95%)
Total   56 (100) 50 (89) 6 (11)   
Age, median
(IQR)
  35
(27–46)
_ _   
Age (years)      0.862  
20–29 22 (39) 20 (40) 2 (33)   2.50 (0.30–20.92)
30–39 11 (20) 11 (22) 0 (0)   ---
40–49 13 (23) 11 (22) 2 (33)   1.38 (0.16–11.94)
≥50 10 (18) 8 (16) 2 (33)   1 (Reference)
Education      0.766  
Primary and junior high school 15 (27) 14 (28) 1 (17)   2.55 (0.20–31.86)
High School 28 (50) 25 (50) 3 (50)   1.52 (0.22–10.38)
University 13 (23) 11 (22) 2 (33)   1 (Reference)
Marriage status      0.999  
Married 9 (16) 8 (16) 1 (17)   1 (Reference)
Unmarried 43 (77) 38 (76) 5 (83)   0.95 (0.10–9.27)
Divorced 4 (7) 4 (8) 0 (0)   ---
Self-reported sexual orientation      0.084  
MSM 50 (89) 46 (92) 4 (67)   5.75 (0.79–41.69)
Heterosexual 6 (11) 4 (8) 2 (33)   1 (Reference)
Alcohol consumption      0.196  
Yes 23 (41) 19 (38) 4 (67)   0.31 (0.05–1.84)
No 33 (59) 31(62) 2 (33)   1 (Reference)
Smoking      0.229  
Yes 24 (43) 20 (40) 4 (67)   0.33 (0.6–2.00)
No 32 (57) 30 (60) 2 (33)   1 (Reference)
CD4+ T cells count      0.465  
<200 17 (30) 16 (32) 1 (17)   4.57 (0.35–59.11)
200–500 30 (54) 27 (54) 3 (50)   2.57 (0.36–18.49)
>500 9 (16) 7 (14) 2 (33)   1 (Reference)
Age of first sexual intercourse (years)      0.362  
<15 19 (34) 18 (36) 1 (17)   2.81 (0.30–25.98)
≥15 37 (66) 32 (64) 5 (83)   1 (Reference)
Sexual practice      0.492  
Genital 5 (9) 4 (8) 1 (17)   1 (Reference)
Oral/Genital 51 (91) 46 (92) 5 (83)   2.30 (0.21–24.80)
Anal receptive sex      0.032  
Yes 47 (84) 45 (90) 3 (50)   9.00 (2.42–57.12)
No 9 (16) 5 (10) 3 (50)   1 (Reference)
Number of sexual partners during the last two years.      0.756  
1 19 (34) 16 (32) 3 (50)   1 (Reference)
2–4 18 (32) 17 (34) 1 (17)   3.19 (0.30–33.89)
5–10 8 (14) 8 (16) 0   ---
>10 11 (20) 9 (18) 2 (33)   0.84 (0.12–6.03)
HAART      0.459  
Yes 44 (79) 40 (80) 4 (67)   1 (Reference)
No 12 (21) 10 (20) 2 (33)   0.50 (0.08–3.13)
STD at the time of the study
(except HIV)
     0.031  
Yes 47 (84) 44 (88) 3 (50)   7.33 (1.20–44.96)
No 9 (16) 6 (12) 3 (50)   1 (Reference)
History of STD (except HIV)      0.690  
Yes 43 (77) 38 (76) 5 (83)   0.63 (0.07–5.97)
No 13 (23) 12 (24) 1 (17)   1 (Reference)
  1. The values with statistical significance appear in italic letters
  2. HPV Human papillomavirus, OR Odd ratio, IQR Inter-quartile ratio, CI Confidence interval, MSM Men who have sex with men STD Sexually transmitted diseases, HIV Human immunodeficiency virus, HAART High activity anti-retroviral therapy