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Table 2 Characteristics of lung, liver, and head and neck NADC patients by HIV status, 2010-2014a

From: Changing Patterns of lung, liver, and head and neck non-AIDS-defining cancers relative to HIV status in Tanzania between 2002-2014

  HIV-negative
(N = 189)
N (%)
HIV-positive
(N = 81)
N (%)
P valueb
HIV-positive vs. -negative
OR (95% CI)c
HIV-positive vs. -negative
HIV-unknown
(N = 857)
N (%)
P valueb
HIV-unknown vs.-negative
OR (95% CI)c
HIV-unknown vs. -negative
Female 65 (34.4%) 48 (59.3%) 0.0001* 2.78 (1.63, 4.74) 297 (34.7%) 0.9449 1.01 (0.73, 1.41)
Mean Age ± SD 48.1 ± 15.6 47.6 ± 12.6 0.7878 1.00 (0.98, 1.02) 56.3 ± 15.7 <0.0001* 1.03 (1.02, 1.05)
Residence in Dar es Salaam 72 (38.1%) 41 (50.6%) 0.0560 1.67 (0.99, 2.82) 335 (39.1%) 0.7768 1.05 (0.76, 1.45)
Advanced cancer staged 115 (60.8%) 42 (51.9%) n/a n/a 498 (58.1%) 0.0447* 0.26 (0.06, 1.08)
Cancer Treatment Modality
 Radiotherapy 111 (58.7%) 56 (69.1%) 0.1221 1.59 (0.88, 2.85) 603 (70.4%) 0.0023* 1.70 (1.21, 2.39)
 Chemotherapy 97 (51.3%) 44 (54.3%) 0.6498 1.13 (0.70, 1.95) 433 (50.5%) 0.7092 0.94 (0.68, 1.30)
Tuberculosis 20 (10.6%) 19 (23.5%) 0.0364* 2.31 (1.05, 2.12) 55 (6.4%) 0.2532 0.71 (0.39, 1.28)
Co-morbiditiese
 Mean count ± SD 0.59 ± 0.80 0.41 ± 0.75 0.0679 0.74 (0.52, 1.05) 0.44 ± 0.74 0.0720 0.80 (0.65, 0.95)
Smoking Status
 Ever use 71 (37.6%) 19 (23.5%) 0.0492* 0.54 (0.29, 1.00) 339 (39.6%) 0.4543 1.14 (0.81, 1.62)
 Never 84 (44.4%) 42 (51.9%) - - 351 (41.0%) - -
Alcohol use
 Ever use 80 (42.3%) 29 (35.8%) 0.8749 1.07 (0.58, 2.00) 356 (41.5%) 0.6032 1.10 (0.77, 1.56)
 Never 74 (39.2%) 25 (30.9%) - - 300 (35.0%) - -
Recurrence 9 (4.76%) 1 (1.2%) 0.2904 0.25 (0.03, 2.01) 31 (3.6%) 0.4577 0.75 (0.35, 1.60)
Subsequent cancer diagnoses 35 (18.5%) 15 (18.5%) 1.0000 1.00 (0.51, 1.95) 109 (12.7%) 0.0362* 0.64 (0.42, 0.97)
Recorded Death 28 (14.8%) 17 (21.0%) 0.2123 1.53 (0.78, 2.98) 104 (12.14%) 0.3153 0.79 (0.51, 1.25)
  1. aMultinomial logistic regression comparing HIV-positive and HIV-unknown to HIV-negative patient group
  2. bChi-squared tests/Fisher’s exact test for categorical variables; t-tests/Wilcoxin rank-sum tests for continuous variables
  3. cOdds Ratios (95% Confidence Intervals) calculated using multinomial logistic regression models (Reference = HIV-negative)
  4. dDefined as stages 3–4 and metastatic malignancies, % represents reported pathology department diagnosis
  5. eComorbidities include malaria, pleural effusion, pneumonia, ascites, syphilis, liver cysts, oral thrush, oral ulcers, sinusitis, yellow fever, etc
  6. *Significant at alpha <0.05