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Table 3 H28 HPV positive results and semi-quantification of HPV-DNA load, stratified on delay between sampling and laboratory processing of DNA extraction (2 to ≥4 weeks)

From: Use of swabs for dry collection of self-samples to detect human papillomavirus among Malagasy women

HPV positive results HPV-DNA loada p value
+ ++ +++ Total  
N (%) N (%) N (%) N (%)  
2 weeks      
 High-riskb 20 (44.4) 25 (55.7) 0 45 (100.0) 0.009
 Low-riskc 9 (34.6) 12 (46.2) 5 (19.2) 26 (100.0) 0.009
3 weeks      
 High-riskb 22 (37.9) 30 (51.7) 6 (10.3) 58 (100.0) 0.919
 Low-riskc 11 (34.4) 18 (56.3) 3 (9.4) 32 (100.0) 0.919
≥4 weeks      
 High-riskb 38 (30.4) 75 (60.0) 12 (9.6) 125 (100.0) 0.409
 Low-riskc 20 (21.0) 58 (66.7) 9 (10.3) 87 (100.0) 0.491
TOTAL 120 (32.2) 218 (58.5) 35 (9.4) 373 (100.0)  
  1. Abbreviations: N number
  2. a + (low), positive >40 PCR cycles, <102 copies/reaction; ++ (medium) positive within 31 to 39 PCR cycles, ≥102 and < 105 copies/reaction; +++ (high) positive before 31 PCR cycles, ≥ 105 copies/reaction
  3. bPositivity for a high-risk HPV type (16, 18, 26, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 53, 56, 58, 59, 66, 68, 69, 73 and 82)
  4. cPositivity for a low-risk type (6, 11, 40, 42, 43, 44, 54, 61 and 70)
  5. NB: For multiple infections each single positive result was counted for high- and low-risk types