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Table 2 H28 HPV results and semi-quantification of ß-globin DNA load, stratified on delay between sampling and laboratory processing of DNA extraction (2 to ≥4 weeks)

From: Use of swabs for dry collection of self-samples to detect human papillomavirus among Malagasy women

HPV results ß-globin DNA loada p value
Undetectable + ++ +++ Total  
N (%) N (%) N (%) N (%) N (%)  
2 weeks       
 Positive 1 (2.3) 1 (2.3) 32 (74.4) 9 (20.9) 43 (100.0) <0.001
  High-riskb 0 1 (3.3) 23 (76.7) 6 (20.0) 30 (100.0)
  Low-riskc 1 (4.6) 0 17 (77.3) 4 (18.2) 22 (100.0)
 Negative 0 0 26 (65.0) 14 (35.0) 40 (100.0)
 Invalid 3 (60.0) 2 (40.0) 0 0 5 (100.0)
3 weeks       
 Positive 2 (3.5) 4 (7.0) 38 (66.7) 13 (22.8) 57 (100.0) <0.001
  High-riskb 1 (2.3) 4 (9.1) 30 (68.2) 9 (20.5) 44 (100.0)
  Low-riskc 1 (3.9) 2 (7.7) 18 (69.2) 5 (19.2) 26 (100.0)
 Negative 0 0 50 (72.5) 19 (27.5) 69 (100.0)
 Invalid 5 (38.5) 8 (61.5) 0 0 13 (100.0)
≥4 weeks       <0.001
 Positive 4 (3.7) 6 (5.5) 79 (72.5) 20 (18.4) 109 (100.0)
  High-riskb 2 (2.4) 5 (6.1) 57 (69.5) 18 (22.0) 82 (100.0)
  Low-riskc 3 (4.6) 3 (4.6) 51 (78.5) 8 (12.3) 65 (100.0)
 Negative 0 0 62 (72.9) 23 (27.1) 85 (100.0)
 Invalid 20 (71.4) 8 (28.6) 0 0 28 (100.0)
TOTAL 35 (7.8) 29 (6.5) 287 (63.9) 98 (21.8) 449 (100.0)  
  1. Abbreviations: N number
  2. aUndetectable, absence of signal; + (low), positive >40 PCR cycles, <102 copies/reaction; ++ (medium) positive within 31 to 39 PCR cycles, ≥102 and < 105 copies/reaction; +++ (high) positive before 31 PCR cycles, ≥ 105 copies/reaction
  3. bPositivity for a high-risk HPV type (16, 18, 26, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 53, 56, 58, 59, 66, 68, 69, 73 and 82)
  4. cPositivity for a low-risk type (6, 11, 40, 42, 43, 44, 54, 61 and 70)
  5. NB For multiple infections positive results were pooled and a single result was generated