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Table 5 Associations Between HPV prevalence and breast cancer Grouped by Selected Factors

From: Inconclusive role of human papillomavirus infection in breast cancer

Variable No. of studies Case vs Control P for heterogeneity
OR(95 % CI)a OR(95%CI)b
all 16 3.20(2.28–4.51) 3.24(1.59–6.57) 0.000
Region    
Asia 9 2.81(1.84–4.28) 2.87(1.05–7.85) 0.000
South America 4 4.70(2.18–10.14) 6.46(0.62–67.88) 0.007
Europe and Oceania 3 3.16(1.27–7.90) 0.611
DNA source    
Fixed tissue 12 2.31(1.55–3.45) 2.23(0.99–5.00) 0.004
Fresh tissue 4 7.88(3.99–15.60) 0.458
PCR primers    
Broad-spectrum primers 10 5.66(3.40–9.45) 0.566
Type-specific primers 4 3.34(1.72–6.47) 3.12(0.29–33.52) 0.002
Combined primers 2 0.68(0.32–1.45) 0.614
Publication period    
1992–2006 6 4.12(2.42–7.02) 0.111
2007–2012 10 2.69(1.73–4.20) 3.10(1.07–8.96) 0.000
  1. CI confidence ratio, OR odds ratio
  2. aFixed effects model
  3. bRandom effects model