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Table 4 Risk factors and association with a histological diagnosis of CIN 1 or worse

From: HPV infection and cervical neoplasia: associated risk factors

Risk factor OR (95%CI) p-value
Age   
<35 years 1.19 (0.59-2.40) 0.3
≥35 years   
Initiation of sexual activity   
<16 years 2.2 (0.94-5.08) 0.03
≥16 years   
Number of partners   
1 0.7 (0.36-1.54) 0.2
≥2   
Number of partners   
<3 1.21 (0.5-2.95) 0.6
≥3   
Pregnancies   
None 0.46 (0.18-1.77) 0.06
≥1   
Oral contraceptive use   
Yes 1.2 (0.5-2.62) 0.3
No   
Smoking   
Yes 0.6 (0.28-1.22) 0.11
No   
HPV infectiona   
Yes 2.76 (1.05-7.19) 0.03
No   
HPV 16 and 18 infection   
Yes   
No 3.53(1.17-10.67) 0.02
Infection by HPV types other than HPV 16 and 18   
Yes   
No 2.25(0.80-6.36) 0.08
  1. aReference HPV-negative, CIN: Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia