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Table 1 Baseline Characteristics by HIV and Immunological level (CD4 count) in both HIV-infected (HIV [+]) and -uninfected {HIV [-]) women

From: Prevalence and risk factors for High-Risk Human Papillomavirus (hrHPV) infection among HIV-infected and Uninfected Rwandan women: implications for hrHPV-based screening in Rwanda

Parameters HIV[-] N = 1,311 HIV[+] N = 1,228 p* HIV[+] N = 1,228 p**
     CD4: ≥500 CD4:350-499 CD4:200-349 CD4:<200  
     N = 513 N = 346 N = 271 N = 88  
Age, years, mean ± SD 42.0 ± 8.2 40.0 ± 6.6 <0.001 39.8 ± 6.6 40.1 ± 6.7 40.8 ± 6.5 39.7 ± 6.5 0.21
Age category, years, n (%)    <0.001    0.17
Age 30 – 34 299 (22.8) 278 (22.6)   127 (24.8) 81 (23.4) 51 (18.8) 16 (18.2)  
Age 35 – 39 279 (21.3) 359 (29.3)   144 (28.1) 101 (29.2) 76 (28.0) 35 (39.8)
Age 40 – 44 237 (18.1) 295 (24.0)   134 (26.1) 80 (23.1) 63 (23.3) 17 (19.3)  
Age 45 – 49 211 (16.1) 171 (13.9)   58 (11.3) 49 (14.2) 49 (18.1) 13 (14.8)  
Age at sexual initiation, years, n (%)    <0.001      0.01
Age <14 16 (4.2) 30 (10.2)   11 (10.0) 5 (5.1) 7 (11.9) 7 (28.0)  
Age 14 – 25 338 (89.7) 258 (87.8)   97 (89.0) 92 (93.9) 49 (83.0) 17 (68.0)
Age at first pregnancy, years ± SD 21.1 ± 3.7 20.1 ± 3.6 <0.001 20.1 ± 3.6 20.3 ± 3.6 20.0 ± 3.7 19.4 ± 3.4 0.25
Lifetime sexual partners    <0.001      0.59
1- 2 sexual partners 1132 (86.4) 616 (50.2)   260 (50.7) 179 (51.7) 126 (46.5) 43 (48.9)  
≥3 sexual partners 179 (13.6) 612 (49.8)   253 (49.3) 167 (48.3) 145 (535) 45 (51.1)  
Number of children delivered, n (%)    <0.001      0.01
0 – 2 300 (23.7) 448 (39.6)   163 (33.9) 130 (41.3) 117 (47.8) 37 (44.6)  
3 – 4 500 (39.5) 464 (41.0)   211 (43.9) 122 (38.7) 93 (37.9) 33 (39.7)  
5 – 12 466 (36.8) 219 (19.4)   107 (22.2) 63 (20.0) 35 (14.3) 13 (15.7)  
Rape, n (%)    <0.001      0.46
Yes 187 (14.3) 409 (33.3)   164 (32.0) 124 (35.8) 85 (31.4) 33 (37.5)  
No 1123 (85.7) 819 (66.7)   349 (68.0) 222 (64.2) 186 (68.6) 55 (62.5)  
Menopause, n (%)    <0.001      0.58
Yes 219 (16.7) 111 (9.0)   50 (9.7) 26 (7.5) 28 (10.3) 7 (8.0)  
No 1092 (83.3) 1117 (91.0)   463 (90.3) 320 (92.5) 243 (89.7) 81 (92.0)  
Polygamous relationship, n (%)    0.01      0.81
Yes 60 (9.2) 34 (14.9)   15 (15.9) 8 (12.1) 8 (15.4) 3 (21.4)  
No 593 (90.8) 194 (85.1)   79 (84.1) 58 (87.9) 44 (84.6) 11 (78.6)  
Ever used hormonal contraceptives, n (%)    0.002      < 0.001
Yes 393 (30.1) 305 (24.8)   154 (30.1) 86 (24.9) 45 (16.6) 20 (22.7)  
No 912 (69.9) 922 (75.2)   358 (69.9) 260 (75.1) 226 (83.4) 68 (77.3)  
Ever used tobacco, n (%)    <0.001      0.57
Yes 221 (16.9) 57 (4.6)   25 (4.9) 11 (3.2) 13 (4.8) 5 (5.8)  
No 1089 (83.1) 1169 (95.4)   488 (95.1) 335 (96.8) 258 (95.2) 81 (94.2)  
Antiretroviral therapy, n (%)         < 0.001
Yes N/A 948 (78.1)   342 (67.6) 273 (79.6) 274 (92.2) 82 (93.2)  
No N/A 266 (21.9)   164 (32.4) 70 (20.4) 21 (7.8) 6 (6.8)  
Malaria within 6 months, n (%)    <0.001      0.28
Yes 185 (14.0) 95 (7.8)   47 (9.2) 23 (6.6) 16 (5.9) 5 (5.7)  
No 112 4(86.0) 1133 (92.2)   466 (90.8) 323 (93.4) 255 (94.1) 83 (94.3)  
BMI, mean ± SD, kg/m ^2 21.9 ± 3.7 22.6 ± 3.8 <0.001 23.0 ± 3.8 22.7 ± 3.8 22.1 ± 3.8 22.0 ± 3.4 0.01
BMI, n (%), kg/m 2    <0.001      0.38
12.5 – 18.5 136 (15.7) 135 (11.6)   44 (9.3) 41 (12.4) 38 (14.3) 11 (12.6)  
18.5 – 21.0 243 (28.1) 282 (24.3)   113 (23.8) 77 (23.3) 68 (25.6) 24 (27.6)  
> 21 – 39.5 486 (56.2) 744 (64.1)   318 (66.9) 212 (64.3) 160 (60.1) 52 (59.8)  
HrHPV infection, n (%)*    <0.001      0.02
Yes 107 (8.2) 390 (31.8)   156 (30.4) 103 (29.8) 91 (33.6) 40 (45.5)  
No 1,204 (91.8) 838 (68.2)   357 (69.6) 243 (70.3) 180 (66.4) 48 (54.5)  
  1. SD, standard deviation and BMI, Body Mass Index. P*-value is for comparing HIV-uninfected to infected overall. P**-value is for comparing CD4 categories in HIV -infected women to different subjects’ parameters. For obtaining p-values chi-Square tests were used for categorical variables and ANOVA for continuous variables except: number of children born, where non-parametric Kruskal Wallis tests was used.