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Table 1 EBV-associated malignancies

From: Global burden of deaths from Epstein-Barr virus attributable malignancies 1990-2010

Malignancy Type of EBV latency Prevalence of EBV in cases (%) Comment
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (ICD10:C11) Type II   Estimates based on 2 previous studies on global burden of infection-associated cancer [1, 2].
 • High/intermediate incidence region   100%
 • Low incidence region   80%
High/intermediate regions: East Asia, South Asia, South East Asia & North Africa & Middle East [53]. All other regions were regarded as low incidence.
Gastric carcinoma (ICD10:C16) Type II   Estimate based on 2 large meta-analysis studies with a cumulative total of 25,690 cases [22, 23].
 • Males   11%
 • Females   6%
Hodgkin’s disease (ICD10:C81) Type II   Estimates based on 7 studies with cumulative total of 3357 cases [17, 2429].
 • Children <14yrs   62%
 • Adults 15-54yrs   30% Age group 0-14 yrs based on 4 studies [17, 24, 27, 29].
 • Adults >55yrs   55%
Age group 15-54 yrs based on 5 studies [17, 25, 2729].
Age group 55+ yrs based on 5 studies [17, 2629].
Burkitt’s Lymphoma (ICD10:C83.5) Type I   Estimates based on 2 previous studies on global burden of infection-associated cancer [1, 2].Endemic region: Sub-Saharan Africa.
 • Endemic   
 90.5% of all NHL are BL in 0-14 age group [1].   95%
 • Intermediate    Intermediate regions: N. Africa & Middle east, Latin America.
 33.3% of all NHL are BL in 0-14 age group [1].   50%
 • Non-endemic    Non-endemic: All other regions.
 15.2% of all NHL are BL in 0-14 age group [1].   20% BL is 3-4x more common in males [4143, 45]. In this study we have used male:female ratio of 3:1.
 In adults (age group 15-80+), irrespective of region, BL is estimated to constitute 2% of all NHL [39].   
Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease (ICD10:D47.Z1) Type III   80% of all PTLD were estimated to be due to EBV [30, 31]. It was assumed the risk of developing PTLD and dying from it was the same for both sexes.
 • 1.5% of transplant recipients were estimated to developed PTLD and 50% of these died with first year of post-transplant [30, 48, 49].   80%