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Table 2 Odds ratios (ORs) for human papillomavirus (HPV) positivity and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) according to selected risk factors

From: Prevalence of HPV infection and other risk factors in a Fijian population

Risk factors No. women HPV-positive women (%) Age-adjusted OR 95% CI Multivariate OR* 95% CI
Age-group        
 16–24 151 54 35.8 1 1
 25–34 435 112 25.8 0.62 0.42–0.93 0.57 0.36–0.89
 35–44 311 70 22.5 0.52 0.34–0.80 0.50 0.31–0.81
 45–54 277 49 17.7 0.39 0.25–0.61 0.37 0.22–0.61
 55–64 70 13 18.6 0.41 0.21–0.82 0.43 0.20–0.89
 Chi2(1) for trend = 23.3, p < 0.001        
Smoking status        
 Non–smoker 980 227 23.2 1   
 Ex–smoker 138 37 26.8 1.09 0.72–1.64   
 Current 125 34 27.2 1.15 0.75–1.77   
Marital status        
 Married 1,027 234 22.8 1 1
 Separated/divorced/widowed 101 28 27.7 1.68 1.04–2.73 1.29 0.71–2.32
 Single 116 36 31.0 1.30 0.84–1.99 1.10 0.47–2.57
Age at 1st sexual intercourse (yrs)        
 <17 107 29 27.1 1   
 17–19 518 119 23.0 0.80 0.49–1.29   
 >19 602 144 23.9 0.84 0.52–1.35   
Chi2(1) for trend = 0.18, p = 0.42        
Number of full–term pregnancies        
 Nulliparous 13 6 46.2 2.17 0.70–6.71   
 1 263 73 27.8 1   
 2 318 72 22.6 0.84 0.57–1.24   
 3 220 49 22.3 0.88 0.56–1.37   
 ≥4 323 59 18.3 0.72 0.46–1.13   
#Chi2(1) for trend (excluding nulliparous) = 3.80, p = 0.05        
Use of hormonal contraceptive        
 Never 681 173 25.4 1   
 Past 352 79 22.4 0.86 0.63–1.17   
 Current 210 46 21.9 0.64 0.44–0.95   
Husband’s extramarital sexual relationships        
 No 849 178 21.0 1 1
 Yes 214 63 29.4 1.69 1.20–2.38 1.66 1.17–2.34
  1. *Adjusted for age and the other variables in the table. Women were excluded from the models (e.g. smoking status) if they were missing the variable, so the different models included different numbers of women. #Trend estimated excluding nulliparous women.