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Table 1 Studies reporting prevalence of AGWs in women

From: Prevalence, incidence and risk factors for anogenital warts in Sub Saharan Africa: a systematic review and meta analysis

Author, Country Study design Study population Sample size Mean or Median age Prevalence of AGWs2n (%) Prevalence Comments
Publication year (years, range/IQR1) of HIV-1 (%)
East Africa
Kreiss et al., 1992 [11] Kenya §Cross-sectional Sex workers 196 30.2 (HIV-1+) 31.5 (HIV-1-) 18/196 (9.2) Overall 15/145 (10.0) HIV-1+ 3/51 (6.0) HIV-1   
Fonck, et al., 2000 [12] Kenya "EntryTbl_st§Cross-sectional Women attending STD3 clinic 520 26 ± 6.8 (14–49) 31/520 (6 .0) 5/520 (1.0)a 29.0 Prevalence of AGWs 5% (Non pregnant women) 9% (Pregnant women) 6% (One sexual partner)
Mayaud et al., 2001 [13] Tanzania §Cross-sectional Pregnant women 660 23.4 ± 5.1 (15–44) 20/660 (3.0) 15.0  
Riedner et al., 2003 [14] Tanzania §Open cohort Female bar workers 600 25.4 39/600 (6.5) Overall 39/408 (9.6) HIV + 0/192 (0.0) HIV - 68.0  
Namkinga et al., 2005 [15] Tanzania §Cross-sectional Women presenting with complaints of genital infections 464   18/464 (3.9) 22.0  
Amone-P'Olak, 2005 [16] Uganda Cross-sectional Formally abducted teenage girls in Northern Uganda 123 16.2 ± 2.2 (12–18) 67/123 (54.5)a   
Mbizvo et al., 2005 [17] Tanzania §Cross –sectional Women seeking primary health care services 382 26.7 ± 6.0 8/382 (2.1) 11.5  
Msuya et al., 2006 [18] Tanzania §Cross-sectional Women seeking reproductive health care services 382 24.6 (14–43) 7/382 (2.0) 6.9  
Riedner et al., 2006 [19] Tanzania §Serial cross-sectional Female bar workers 600 25.5 (16–39) 5.2-10.7 67.0  
Aboud et al., 2008 [20] TanzaniaMalawi and Zambia §Cross-sectional HIV-1 positive pregnant women 2292 (15–49) 195/2292 (8.5)   Prevalence of AGWs Blantyre – 42/474 (8.9) Lilongwe – 61/748 (8.2) Dar es Salaam – 31/428 (7.2) Lusaka – 61/642 (9.5)
Banura et al., 2008a [21] Uganda Baseline of a prospective cohort study Young women attending a clinic for teenagers 1275 20 (12–24) 97/1275 (7.6) 8.6  
Banura et al., 2008b [22] Uganda §Baseline of a prospective cohort study Pregnant women Attending ANC5 987 19 (14–24) 61/987 (6.2) 7.3  
Urassa et al., 2008 [23] Tanzania §Cross-sectional Youth attending an STI4 clinic 214 20.2 (Females) (13–24) 21.5 (Males) (11–24) 7/214 (3.3) 15.3 HIV −1 prevalence in Males – 7.5%
Grijsen et al., 2008 [24] Kenya §Baseline of a prospective cohort study Women at risk for HIV-infection 361 27 (23–32) 8/361 (2.4) 32.0  
Msuya et al., 2009 [18] Tanzania §Cross-sectional Pregnant women 2655 24.6 (14–43) 11/2555 (0.4) Overall 2/184 (1.1) HIV + 9/2470 (0.4) HIV - 6.9  
Mapingure, et al., 2000 [25] Tanzania §Cross-sectional Pregnant women 2654 24.6 34/2654 (1.3) 48/2654 (1.8)b 6.9  
Central and South Africa         
Latif et al., 1984 [26] Zimbabwe §Cross-sectional Pregnant women attending STD clinic 175 22.3 23/175 (13.7)   
Mason et al., 1990 [27] Zimbabwe §Cross-sectional Women attending STD clinic 100 (15–45) 14/100 (14.0) 1/59 (1.7)a   
Kristensen 1990 [28] Malawi §Cross sectional Adult women with symptoms of STIs 16,218 26.8 ± 7.5 32/16,218 (0.2) 62.4  
Nzila et al., 1991 [29] Democratic Republic of Congo §Cross-sectional Female sex workers 1233   30/1233 (2.4) Overall 21/431 (5.0) HIV + 8/802 (1.0) HIV- 35.0  
Le Bacq et al., 1993 [30] Zimbabwe §Cross-sectional New STD clinic attendees 146   19/146 (13.0) 69.0  
Maher et al., 1995 [31] Malawi §Cross-sectional Female patients in general medical care 61 31 (16–65) 6/61 (9.8)   
Taha et al., 1998 [32] Malawi §Serial cross-sectional surveys Pregnant women 1990 – 6603 HIV + 1502 HIV- 5101 1993 – 2161 HIV + 694 HIV- 1457 1995 – 808 HIV + 808 HIV- 701   1990 1993 1995 Overall 4.8 3.1 2.5 HIV + 8.3 6.3 2.7 HIV- 2.2 1.7 1.0 23.0 (1990) 30.1 (1993) 32.6 (1995)  
Klaskala et al., 2005 [33] Zambia §Cross-sectional Pregnant women 3160 25 ± 5.3 (14–43) 203/3160 (6.2)   
Mbizvo et al., 2005 [17] Zimbabwe §Cross –sectional Women recruited from primary health care centers 386 26.5 ± 6.8 13/386 (3.4) 29.3  
Kurewa et al., 2010 [34] Zimbabwe §Cross-sectional Pregnant women 691 24.2 ± 5.1 48/691 (7.0) 50 /691 (7.3)a 25.6  
Mapingure et al., 2010 [26] Zimbabwe §Cross-sectional Pregnant women 691 24.2 ± 5.1 50/691 (7.3) 33/691 (4.8)b 25.6  
Menendez et al., 2010 [35] Mozambique §Cross- sectional Women attending ANC and FP6 clinics and community 262 (14–61) 13/262 (5.0) 12.0 Prevalence of HIV-1 21.0% among FP clinic attendees
West Africa
Oni et al., 1994 [36] Nigeria §Cross-sectional STD clinic attendees 116   12/116 (10.5)   
Ghys et al., 1995 [37] Ivory Cost §Cross sectional Female sexual workers 1209   105/1209 (8.7) Overall 79/567 (14.0) HIV + 26/642 (4.0) HIV - 80.0  
Meda et al., 1997 [38] Burkina Faso §Cross – sectional Women attending ANC 645 25.3 ± 2.9 (15–41) 19/645 (2.9)   
Okesola et al., 2000 [39] Nigeria §Cross-sectional Patients attending an STD clinic 861 (17–74) 68/861 (8.0)   
Bakare et al., 2002 [40] Nigeria §Cross-sectional CSWs7 and women without symptoms of STIs    6.5 36.4c 34.3  
Domfeh et al., 2008 [41] Ghana §Cross-sectional Women attending gynecological clinic 75 33.3 ± 9.2 (19–57) 4/75 (5.3)a   
Sagay et al., 2009 [42] Nigeria §Cross-sectional Female sex workers 374 27.8 ± 6.7 (16–63) 17/374 (4.5)   Prevalence of AGWs 5/81 (6.1%) Lemon users 12/293 (4.1%) Non Lemon users
Jombo et al., 2009 [43] Nigeria §Cross- sectional Patients with genital ulcer disease 699   369/699 (52.8) Overall 285/506 (56.4) HIV + 84/193 (43.6) HIV –   Prevalence Males: 13/329 (2.6%) Females: 8/177 (1.6%)
Low et al., 2011 [44] Burkina Faso §Baseline of Prospective cohort CSWs and other women with high-risk sexual behaviors 765 28 (15–54) 27/765 (3.5) Overall 19/273 (7.0) HIV −1 + 8/492 (1.6) HIV - 34.9 HIV-1 0.7 HIV-1 &2 No prevalent AGWs among women on HAART
  1. a self-reported prevalence; b self-reported prevalence for the last 12 months; c self-reported prevalence among commercial sexual workers; 1Inter quartile range; 2Anogenital warts; 3Sexually transmitted disease; 4Sexually transmitted infection; 5Antenatal care; 6Family planning; 7Commercial sexual workers; § hospital-based study; Teenagers in an institution.