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Table 1 Clinical questionnaire responses and potential risk factors for high risk human papillomavirus positivity

From: A population-based cross-sectional study of age-specific risk factors for high risk human papillomavirus prevalence in rural Nigeria

   Total Positive for one or more HR-HPV genotypes  
  Categories n (%) n (%) OR 95% CI p-valuec
Age (yrs)
(mean = 45.2 ± 17, median = 45)
15 - 29 300 21.1 49 18.9 1.3 0.9 - 2.0  
Mean = 45.2, median = 45 30 - 45 452 31.8 55 12.8 0.8 0.6 - 1.2  
  46 - 55 238 16.8 29 12.7 0.8 0.5 - 1.3  
  56+ 430 30.3 55 15.1 1.0 Ref 0.14
Age of Menarche (yrs) 10 - 14 224 17.6 33 16.1 1.0 0.6 - 1.8  
Mean = 16.1, median = 15 15 - 19 891 70.0 119 14.6 0.9 0.6 - 1.5  
  20 - 25 158 12.4 22 15.9 1.0 Ref 0.83
Age at Sexual Debut (yrs) 10-14 47 3.5 12 25.5 2.4 1.1 - 5.3  
Mean = 20.0, median = 20 15-24 1,059 79.7 148 14.8 1.2 0.8 - 2.0  
  25+ 223 16.8 23 12.2 1.0 Ref 0.10
Age at First Pregnancy (yrs) 12-19 178 14.4 27 16.2 1.4 0.9 - 2.4  
Mean = 23.1, median = 23 20-24 523 42.4 84 17.1 1.5 1.1 - 2.2  
  25+ 534 43.2 56 11.8 1.0 Ref 0.05
Lifetime No. of Pregnancies 1 - 4 370 28.9 54 15.7 1.1 0.7 - 1.8  
Mean = 6.5, median = 6 5 - 9 660 51.5 88 14.5 1.0 0.7 - 1.6  
  10+ 251 19.6 32 14.2 1.0 Ref 0.86
No. of Sex Partners (past 2 yrs) 2+ 311 23.1 54 18.2 1.4 1.0 - 2.0  
Mean = 1.3, median = 1 1 1,034 76.9 131 13.9 1.0 Ref 0.07
Current Birth Control Use Yes 185 13.9 37 20.3 1.6 1.1 - 2.4  
  No 1,147 86.1 144 13.9 1.0 Ref 0.03
Current Marital Status a Not in Union 450 33.5 66 16.4 1.2 0.9 - 1.7  
  In Union 895 66.5 117 13.9 1.0 Ref 0.25
In Household with Co-wives Yes 553 40.1 70 13.5 0.8 0.6 - 1.1 0.24
  No 825 59.9 116 15.9 1.0 Ref  
No. Other Wives 1 185 37.2 29 16.4 1.3 0.7 - 2.4  
Mean = 2.1, median = 2 2 168 33.8 14 9.0 0.6 0.3 - 1.4  
  3+ 144 29.0 18 13.3 1.0 Ref 0.13
Rank Among Other Wives 1st 222 45.0 26 12.4 1.3 0.6 - 2.9  
Mean = 1.8, median = 2 2nd 172 34.9 25 15.5 1.7 0.8 - 3.8  
  3rd 99 20.1 9 9.8 1.0 Ref 0.40
Age of Youngest Wife (yrs) 15 - 29 42 13.9 8 19.1 0.7 0.2 - 2.2  
Mean = 39.4, median = 40 30 - 59 236 78.1 25 11.4 0.4 0.1 - 1.0  
  60+ 24 8.0 6 26.1 1.0 Ref 0.11
Tobacco Exposure b Yes 121 15.2 20 17.5 1.3 0.8 - 2.3  
  No 675 84.8 87 13.8 1.0 Ref 0.31
Number of Malaria Diagnoses (past 2 yrs) 3+ 453 35.2 64 15.5 1.1 0.6 - 2.1  
  2 371 28.9 45 13.4 0.9 0.5 - 1.8  
Mean = 2.2, median = 2 1 355 27.6 43 13.7 0.9 0.5 - 1.8  
  0 107 8.3 14 14.3 1.0 Ref 0.85
  1. a - In Union includes a woman who is either married or living with a man;
  2. b -A "yes" response includes 77 women whose husbands smoke and 44 women who currently use tobacco
  3. c - p-trend for variables with more than two response categories.