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Table 3 Multinomial logistic regression model for association of classic Kaposi sarcoma (cKS) and KS-associated herpesvirus with exposures to individual plants and soils, adjusted for core-model variables.*

From: Risk of classic Kaposi sarcoma with exposures to plants and soils in Sicily

  cKS cases KSHV-negative controls KSHV + controls*
Plant and soil variables† N OR* 95% CI P trend N OR* 95% CI P trend N
Taraxacum officinale          
   ≥100 contacts 9 1.50 0.43 - 5.23 0.04 80 1.71 0.61 - 4.80 0.06 7
   <100 contacts 39 3.59 1.60 - 8.03   217 2.03 1.01 - 4.10   16
   Zero contacts 74 Ref    455 Ref    65
Datura stramonium          
   Any 11 4.26 1.09 - 16.70 0.05 70 2.21 0.63 - 7.79 0.22 5
   None 111 Ref    682 Ref    83
Lupinus albus          
   ≥100 contacts 16 3.58 1.01 - 12.65 0.07 91 2.85 1.00 - 8.08 0.19 8
   <100 contacts 72 1.27 0.52 - 3.07   440 1.26 0.63 - 2.53   55
   Zero contacts 34 Ref    221 Ref    25
Acanthus mollis          
   ≥100 contacts 3 0.45 0.08 - 2.53 0.10 39 0.90 0.29 - 2.82 0.92 6
   <100 contacts 11 0.53 0.20 - 1.42   119 1.09 0.49 - 2.42   11
   Zero contacts 108 Ref    594 Ref    71
Matricaria chamomilla compositae          
   ≥100 contacts 11 0.29 0.10 - 0.85 0.02 125 0.99 0.44 - 2.22 0.81 12
   <100 contacts 64 0.62 0.29 - 1.32   410 0.88 0.47 - 1.64   49
   Zero contacts 47 Ref    217 Ref    27
Eutric regosol and/or lithosol          
   ≥17 28 8.32 2.31 - 29.97 0.01 139 2.35 0.98 - 5.64 0.16 15
   <17 15 0.84 0.30 - 2.40   159 1.09 0.49 - 2.43   20
   None 79 Ref    454 Ref    53
Chromic and/or pellic vertisol          
   ≥ 45 33 3.03 0.94 - 9.78 0.04 208 1.33 0.50 - 3.57 0.55 27
   < 45 40 2.18 0.72 - 6.61   252 1.92 0.78 - 4.71   32
   None 49 Ref    292 Ref    29
Rendzina          
   ≥15 3 0.16 0.03 - 0.87 0.01 36 0.34 0.10 - 1.13 0.02 5
   <15 6 0.41 0.09 - 1.81   43 0.45 0.15 - 1.38   8
   None 79 Ref    673 Ref    75
Orthic luvisol          
   ≥47 35 0.29 0.08 - 1.01 0.01 252 0.63 0.24 - 1.63 0.12 34
   <47 36 0.58 0.21 - 1.60   246 1.22 0.28 - 2.81   30
   None 51 Ref    254 Ref    24
Vertic cambisol          
   ≥12 12 0.66 0.15 - 2.79 0.10 127 0.88 0.28 - 2.81 0.18 16
   <12 31 0.43 0.15 - 1.22   158 0.23 0.10 - 0.54   29
   None 79 Ref    467 Ref    43
Eutric cambisol          
   ≥157 36 0.22 0.05 - 1.06 0.13 293 0.39 0.12 - 1.31 0.29 43
   <157 54 0.79 0.24 - 0.17   300 0.59 0.59 - 1.61   33
   None 32 Ref    159 Ref    12
  1. * Odds ratios (OR) and confidence intervals (CI), with KSHV+ controls as referent group, are adjusted for all variables shown, as well as those in the "core model" (Table 1). † Luminescence-weighted soil values in childhood communities, as described in Methods.