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Table 3 Association of high-risk HPV infection with variables associated with HIV infection

From: The prevalence of cervical cytology abnormalities and human papillomavirus in women infected with the human immunodeficiency virus

  High Risk HPV Infections   
  Negative (32)
N
Positive (67)
N
Odds Ratio
(95% CI)
Adjusted Odds Ratio
(95% CI)*
Years living with HIV     
   <2 8 21 1 (ref) 1 (ref)
   2 to 6) 12 13 2.4 (0.8 – 7.5) 3.0 (0.5 – 18.5)
   6+ 12 33 2.5 (0.9 – 7.1) 1.7 (0.3 – 9.2)
Duration of HAART therapy     
   <3 12 42 1 (ref) 1 (ref)
   3+ 20 25 0.4 (0.1 – 0.9) 0.4 (0.1 – 1.4)
CD4 count     
   <400 11 57 1 (ref) 1 (ref)
   400+ 21 10 0.1 (0.03 – 0.2) 0.2 (0.05 – 0.8)
HIV viral load     
   <50 23 22 1 (ref) 1 (ref)
   50 – 28,000 8 26 3.4 (1.3 – 9.1) 1.9 (0.5 – 7.2)
   >28,000 1 19 19.9 (2.4 – 161.3) 2.2 (0.2 – 25.9)
Cervical cytology     
   Negative 29 25 1 (ref) 1 (ref)
   ASCUS 1 6   
   LGSIL 2 29   
   HGSIL 0 6   
  1. ref = reference; *Adjusted for age (continuous), marital status, number of pregnancies, Tobacco use, duration of HAART therapy, CD4 counts, viral load and cervical cytology