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Table 2 Association of high-risk HPV with behavioral variables

From: The prevalence of cervical cytology abnormalities and human papillomavirus in women infected with the human immunodeficiency virus

  High Risk HPV Infections   
  Negative (32)
N
Positive (67)
N
Odds Ratio
(95% CI)
Adjusted Odds Ratio
(95% CI)*
Age     
   <40 10 42 1.0 (ref) 1 (ref)
   40+ 22 25 0.3 (0.1–0.7) 0.4 (0.1–1.5)
Birth-control method     
   None 5 7 0.6 (0.1 – 2.3) 0.3 (0.0 – 5.1)
   Barrier 10 24 1.0 (ref) 1.0 (ref)
   No barrier 2 12 2.5 (0.5–13.3) 6.8 (0.7 – 67.8)
   Abstinence 15 24 0.7 (0.3 – 1.8) 0.5 (0.1 – 2.5)
Age at menarche     
   <13 years 10 22 1.0 (ref) 1.0 (ref)
   13+ years 22 45 0.9 (0.4 – 2.3) 2.3 (0.5–9.8)
Number of pregnancies     
   <3 6 31 1.0 (ref) 1.0 (ref)
   3+ 26 36 0.3 (0.1 – 0.7) 0.2 (0.1 – 0.99)
Age of first sexual intercourse     
   <16 years 12 27 1.0 (ref) 1.0 (ref)
   16+ years 20 40 0.9 (0.4 – 2.1) 1.0 (0.3 – 3.8)
Lifetime number of sex partners     
   <5 11 28 1.0 (ref) 1.0 (ref)
   5 to 10 16 24 0.6 (0.2 – 1.5) 1.2 (0.3 – 5.4)
   >10 5 15 1.2 (0.3 – 4.0) 4.4 (0.7 – 29.6)
Alcohol     
   Never 18 34 1.0 (ref) 1.0 (ref)
   Ever 14 33 1.3 (0.5 – 2.9) 1.7 (0.4 – 6.8)
Marijuana     
   Never 27 54 1.0 (ref) 1.0 (ref)
   Ever 5 13 1.3 (0.4 – 4.0) 7.0 (0.5 – 91.2)
Tobacco     
   Never 27 63 1.0 (ref) 1.0 (ref)
   Ever 7 4 0.2 (0.1 – 0.8) 0.2 (0.04 – 1.6)
  1. ref = reference; *Adjusted for age (continuous), marital status, number of pregnancies, Tobacco use, duration of HAART therapy, CD4 counts, viral load and cervical cytology; Birth control method: Barrier = male condom, No barrier = birth control pill or Depo-Provera®