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Table 1 Comparison between the cellular effects of E. coli CNF1 and those of the major virulence factors (VacA and CagA) of H. pylori

From: The Rho-activating CNF1 toxin from pathogenic E. coli: A risk factor for human cancer development?

  CNF1 CagA VacA
Effects on cytoskeleton and cell morphology • Actin polymerization
• Spreading
• Multinucleation
• Actin rearrangement
• "hummingbird" phenotype
• loss of cell polarity
• cell scattering
• Actin disruption
• Vacuolization
Apoptosis regulation Anti-apoptotic effect Anti-apoptotic effect Pro-apoptotic effect
Production of inflammatory mediators TNF-α IL-8 TNF-α
  IL-6 ROS IL-8
  IL-8   IL-1β
  ROS   IL-6
Activation of transcription factors NF-kB NF-kB NF-kB
   NFAT ATF-2
   SRF NFAT
   AP1  
Effect on cell cycle Block in G2/M Inhibition of G1/S progression Induction of G1/S progression
Effects on mitochondria Inhibition of UVB-induced mitochondrial membrane depolarization   Reduction of mitochondrial membrane potential, cytochrome c release