Gene expression profile in cervical carcinoma HPV 16+ as identified by significance analysis of microarrays (SAM) and Eisen Cluster analysis. A. SAM plot representing modulated genes. The delta was set to support a false discovery rate of 10% or less. Genes with expression levels that are statistically beyond delta in either direction are plotted either above (induced, red) or below (repressed, green) the control group. Genes which expression level did not change more than the set delta in either direction were considered to be not statistically significantly different at the set false discovery rate. B: Cluster analysis of cDNA microarray data. Microarray data were analyzed by the Eisen Hierarchical Cluster program and visualized with TreeView. The cluster shows 2,836 genes. Each row represents a gene, whereas each column corresponds to a tissue sample, the color line below tissue samples indicates, a) green: normal samples and b) red: tumor samples. The relative abundance of each gene in the tissue correlates with color intensity (red induced; green, repressed; black, no change). On the dendogram, all eight invasive cervical cancers clustered together such as two of the tree normal samples (N and N1) cluster indicating their similarity based on expression profile.